Comparative Studies of Different Cements with Different Standards

S.K. Agarwal and L.P. Singh, Scientists, EST Division, Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee

The compressive strength of four cements (Three PPC and one OPC) was determined according to different international standard, BIS, BS, ASTM and Sri Lanka. The 28 days strength of one PPC is 53 MPa, the other two shows 48MPa when tested as per BIS. The 43 grade OPC also shows 50 MPa at 28 days. However, when tested as per BS & ASTM methods, the 28 days strength is approx 32.5 Mpa and 27 MPa in all the cases.

Introduction

In the last two decades, the quality of cement has improved considerably, due to improvement in the cement manufacturing technology. Cement conforming to 43 grade or 53 grade are giving much higher compressive strength as recommended in respective BIS codes 8112 and 12269 [1,2]. Different countries have their own standards for testing cement. Different international standards have fixed consistency (Srilanka=0.40, BS-12=0.400, ASTM =0.485). However, according to BIS normal consistency varies 0.27 to 0.33 depending upon the fineness of cement. In BIS method normal consistency has to be determined on daily bases. One study involving 53 grade OPC has been done [3].

Purpose of the present study is to compare compressive strength of different cement as per different standards, so that it can be mentioned when cement is exported to other countries. Further, the study will also help in minimizing errors and time saving BIS method once accepted by BIS. A fixed value of normal consistency can be introduced like other standards. Further export of these cements will be easy once these cements have been tested as per different standards. In the present study four cements (3 Portland Pozzolana and 1 OPC) was taken. The brands of cements are not disclosed.

Materials

Cement

Three portland pozzolana cements and ordinary portland cement was purchased from the local market. Their physical and chemical properties are given in Table I. The results have been compared with BIS 1489-91[4].

Comparative Studies of Different Cements with Different Standards

Consistency

Normal consistencies of all the four cements were determined as per BIS [5].

Casting of Cubes

70 mm cubes were cast as per BIS. After 24 hours, cubes were demolded and kept in water at 27+20C. Cubes were also cast at 0.400 and 0.485 normal consistencies according to BS and ASTM methods.

Compressive Strength

Compressive Strength of cube was determined at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days as per BIS methods [6]. The results are summarized in Table 2.

Result and Discussion

Comparative Studies of Different Cements with Different Standards
It is clear from Table 2 that Compressive Strength of all the four Cements is different at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days, when tested as per different codes of practice existing in different countries.

Comparing Strength data of 1, 3 and 7 day for three blended Cements, Cement-I is more than Cement 2 and 3. The higher earlier strength can be attributed to fineness of cement I. It is known that the short term activity depends on the specific surface area of the pozzolona, where as the long-term activity depends on the chemical and mineralogical composition of pozzolana. The pozzolana activity indices are highly correlated with the specific surface areas of flyashes. Further, fineness of flyashes is one of the most important physical properties affecting pozzolanic reactivity.

At early ages fineness plays an important role in the strength of mortars via a micro–filler or a cement dispersion effect or both.

In the present case, the surface area of Cement I is more compare to cement 2 and 3 showing there by higher initial strength compare to cement 2. This can be attributed to higher CaO content and less IR. However, the surface area of both the cements (2 and 3) is nearly same. The 28 days strength of C1, C2 & C3 according to BIS corresponds to 53 MPa and 48 MPa. However, when compared to BS or ASTM standards these cements are approx 32.5 MPa and 27 MPa. This is approx 35% and 40% less compare to BIS values.

The present study indicates that Indian cements are showing much lower strength, when tested as per BS/SriLanka and ASTM methods. Since blended cements especially portland pozzalana cement is available in abundance in the country with 20-30% pozzolana content. In order to ensure high performance of concrete in marine/ aggressive environment by using PPC, the proportions of cementitious materials should be much more than those generally used in blended cement in our country.

This study is important from the point of view for cement manufacturing units exporting cement as per survey by 2010, 60% cement will be blended. Their characterization will help in export.

At early ages fineness plays an important role in the strength of mortars via a micro – filler or a Cement dispersion effect or both.

In the present case, the surface area of Cement I is more compare to Cement 2 and 3. Showing there by higher initial strength compare to Cement 2.this can be other build to higher Cao Content and less IR.However, the surface area of both the cement is nearly same. The 28 day strength of C1, C2 & C3.according to BIS corresponds to 53 MPa as 43 Mpa. However, when compared to BS or ASTM standard these Cements are approx 32.5Mpa and 27 MPa. This approx 35% and 40% less compare to BIS.

The present study indicates that Indian Cements are showing much lower strength, when tested as per BS/Srilanka and ASTM method. Since blended Cements especially portland pozzalana Content. In order to ensure high performance of concrete In order to ensure high performance of concrete in marine/ aggressive environment by using PPC the proportions of cementitious materials should be much more than those generally used in blended Cement in our country.

This study is important from the point of view for Cement manufacturing units exporting Cement.

Conclusion

It is concluded from the present study that Cement claming 53 Mpa strength for PPC according to BIS are showing approx 32.5 and 27 Mpa when tested as per BS/ASTM method.

Acknowledgment

This paper is part of ongoing R&D work in Central Building Research Institute and is published with the permission of Director, CBRI, Roorkee, India.

References

  • Specification for 43 grade Ordinary Portland Cement BIS 8112 (2005). Manak Bhavan New Delhi.
  • Specification for 53 grade Ordinary Portland Cement BIS 8112 (2005). Manak Bhavan New Delhi.
  • Dordi, C.M., Concrete for the Millennium Advance in Cement Technology Ed. S.N. Ghosh Tech Books International p.421 (2002).
  • Specification for Portland Pozzolana Cement, BIS 1489 (Part I) Feb 2004, Manak Bhavan New Delhi
  • Specification for physical test for hydraulic Cement BIS 4031 (Part 4); Determination of consistency of standard Cement Paste. (2005), Manak Bhavan, New Delhi.
  • Specification for Physical Test for hydraulic Cement BIS 4031 (Part 6)–Determination of Compressive Strength (2005). Manak Bhavan, New Delhi.
NBM&CW October 2008
Admixture-Cement Compatibility For Self-Compacting Concrete

Admixture-Cement Compatibility For Self-Compacting Concrete

An admixture is now an essential component in any modern concrete formula and plays a significant role in sustainable development of concrete technology. Dr. Supradip Das, Consultant – Admixture, Waterproofing, Repair & Retrofitting

Read more ...

Amazecrete's Icrete: New Age Material for Concrete Construction

Amazecrete's Icrete: New Age Material for Concrete Construction

By maximizing the durability and use of supplementary cementitious materials, Icrete has emerged as a new age material for Concrete Construction V. R. Kowshika Executive Director Amazecrete

Read more ...

Nanospan’s Spanocrete® Reduces Cement & Curing Time in Fly Ash Bricks

Nanospan’s Spanocrete® Reduces Cement & Curing Time in Fly Ash Bricks

Hyderabad-based Ecotec Industries is a leading manufacturer of fly ash bricks and cement concrete blocks in South India under the trademark NUBRIK. Their products are known for their consistency and quality. Ecotec was earlier owned

Read more ...

Ready-Mix Concrete: Advancing Sustainable Construction

Ready-Mix Concrete: Advancing Sustainable Construction

A coordinated approach by the government, industry stakeholders, and regulatory bodies is needed to overcome challenges, implement necessary changes, and propel the RMC sector towards further growth such that RMC continues to play a vital

Read more ...

Advancements & Opportunities in Photocatalytic Concrete Technology

Advancements & Opportunities in Photocatalytic Concrete Technology

Research on photocatalytic concrete technology has spanned multiple decades and involved contributions from various countries worldwide. This review provides a concise overview of key findings and advancements in this field

Read more ...

Self-Compacting Concrete

Self-Compacting Concrete

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a special type of concrete which can be placed and consolidated under its own weight without any vibratory effort due to its excellent deformability, which, at the same time, is cohesive enough to be handled

Read more ...

Nanospan's Spanocrete® Additive for Waterproofing & Leak-Free Concrete

Nanospan's Spanocrete® Additive for Waterproofing & Leak-Free Concrete

Nanospan's Spanocrete Additive for Waterproofing & Leak-Free Concrete has proven its mettle in the first massive Lift Irrigation project taken up by the Government of Telangana to irrigate one million acres in the State.

Read more ...

Accelerated Building & Bridge Construction with UHPC

Accelerated Building & Bridge Construction with UHPC

UHPC, which stands for Ultra High-Performance Concrete, is a testament to the ever-evolving panorama of construction materials, promising unparalleled strength, durability, and versatility; in fact, the word concrete itself is a misnomer

Read more ...

Innovative Approaches Driving Sustainable Concrete Solutions

Innovative Approaches Driving Sustainable Concrete Solutions

This paper explores the evolving landscape of sustainable concrete construction, focusing on emerging trends, innovative technologies, and materials poised to reshape the industry. Highlighted areas include the potential of green concrete

Read more ...

GGBS: Partial Replacement Of Cement For Developing Low Carbon Concrete

GGBS: Partial Replacement Of Cement For Developing Low Carbon Concrete

Dr. L R Manjunatha, Vice President, and Ajay Mandhaniya, Concrete Technologist, JSW Cement Limited, present a Case Study on using GGBS as partial replacements of cement for developing Low Carbon Concretes (LCC) for a new Education University

Read more ...

Behaviour of Ternary Concrete with Flyash & GGBS

Behaviour of Ternary Concrete with Flyash & GGBS

Evaluating the performance of concrete containing Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) like FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) that can be used in the production of long-lasting concrete composites.

Read more ...

Nanospan's Spanocrete®: nano-admixture for concrete

Nanospan's Spanocrete®: nano-admixture for concrete

Nanospan’s Spanocrete, a Greenpro-certified, award- winning, groundbreaking nano-admixture for concrete, actualizes the concept of “durability meets sustainability”. This product simplifies the production of durable concrete, making it cost-effective

Read more ...

The Underwater Concrete Market in India

The Underwater Concrete Market in India

India, with its vast coastline and ambitious infrastructural projects, has emerged as a hotspot for the underwater concrete market. This specialized sector plays a crucial role in the construction of marine structures like bridges, ports

Read more ...

The Path to Enhanced Durability & Resilience of Concrete Structures

The Path to Enhanced Durability & Resilience of Concrete Structures

This article highlights a comprehensive exploration of the strategies, innovations, and practices for achieving concrete structures that not only withstand the test of time but also thrive in the face of adversity.

Read more ...

Self-Curing Concrete for the Indian Construction Industry

Self-Curing Concrete for the Indian Construction Industry

The desired performance of concrete in the long run depends on the extent and effectiveness of curing [1 & 2]. In the Indian construction sector, curing concrete at an early age is a problematic issue because of lack of awareness or other

Read more ...

BigBloc Construction an emerging leader in AAC Block

BigBloc Construction an emerging leader in AAC Block

Incorporated in 2015, BigBloc Construction Ltd is one of the largest and only listed company in the AAC Block space with an installed capacity of 8.25 lakh cbm per annum. The company’s manufacturing plants are located in Umargaon

Read more ...

Decarbonizing Cement Industry: Sustainable & Energy-Efficient Measures

Decarbonizing Cement Industry: Sustainable & Energy-Efficient Measures

Dr. L R Manjunatha (VP), Manoj Rustagi (Chief Sustainability & Innovation Officer), Gayatri Joshi (ASM), and Monika Shrivastava (Head of Sustainability) at JSW Cement Limited, discuss new approaches for Decarbonizing the Cement

Read more ...

Concrete Rheology: Technology to Describe Flow Properties of Concrete

Concrete Rheology: Technology to Describe Flow Properties of Concrete

Concrete is a heterogeneous composite complex material, and its hardened property is influenced by its fresh property. Concrete today has transformed into an advanced type with new and innovative ingredients added - either singly or in

Read more ...

Amazecrete ICRETE: Making Concrete Economical & Durable

Amazecrete ICRETE: Making Concrete Economical & Durable

ICRETE offers many benefits apart from reducing cement content and giving high grades saving to ready-mix concrete companies; it helps reduce shrinkage and permeability in concrete slabs, increases the durability of concrete, and also works

Read more ...

To get latest updates on whatsapp, Save +91 93545 87773 and send us a 'Saved' message
Click Here to Subscribe to Our eNewsletter.