Durability of Concrete made with Marble Dust as partial replacement of Cement subjected to Sulphate attack

Gurcharan Singh, Dr. S. K. Madan, Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra

Abstract
This experimental study presents the feasibility of the production of more durable concrete with marble dust as partial replacement of cement by 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight. Standard concrete cube specimens of size 150mm×150mm×150mm were casted with OPC and 0 % marble dust for two grade of concrete M25 & M30. The compressive strength & water absorption of concrete were studied at 28 days of curing in fresh water and thereafter concrete cube specimens were placed for both water curing as well as exposed to sulphate solution for next 28 days, 90 days, 180 days and 365 days. From the investigation it was observed that a 10% replacement of marble dust with cement proved to be optimum in both the cases. There was an increase in compressive strength of the order of 24.85% & 23.27% in case of water curing when compared with standard concrete cube specimens for M25 & M30 concrete respectively. There was an increase in compressive strength of 27.13% & 19.90% in case when exposed to sulphate solution as compared with standard concrete cube specimens for M25 & M30 concretes respectively. It was also observed that there was decrease in water absorption from 4.98% to 3.79% & from 5.43% to 3.46% for 10% replacement of cement with marble dust as compared with standard concrete cube specimens for M25 & M30 concretes respectively.

1. Introduction
Concrete is one of the most used construction material composed of cement, sand, aggregate, water and admixtures. The civil engineering construction industry is believed to be one of the most potential consumers of mineral resources thus generating a great amount of solid waste as a by-product. Marble dust as well as various minerals additive like granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica fume have been used in mortar and concrete production. Further marble dust can be used as filler, partial replacement of cement as well as partial and full replacement of fine aggregate in mortar as well as in concrete production. Thus various investigations have been carried out to utilize such waste product in maintaining or improving durability and strength of concrete.

2. Literature Review
The compressive strength and workability of concrete were studied experimentally using marble dust as partial replacement of cement by Singh G. and Madan S.K. The authors showed that up to 10% of marble dust can be used as replacement of cement with 21.22 % increase in the strength of concrete [1]. According to Hanifi Binici et al., the durability of the concrete made up of marble and GBFS was found to be more advanced than the concrete made up of Portland cement. In the specimens comprising marble, granite and GBFS there was a significantly higher bonding between additives and the concrete. Compressive strength, flexural strength were studied and better results were found [2].The results of the study done by the authors M. Shahul Hameed and A. S. S. Sekar, where the marble sludge powder was used as filler as 100% substitutes for natural sand in concrete. The concrete resistance to salt attack was increased greatly [3]. In his study, Bahar Demirel examined the impacts of utilizing waste marble dust as a fine material on the mechanical properties of the solid and observed that the addition of waste marble dust would replace the fine material passing through a 0.25 mm sieve at particular proportions displayed an enhancing effect on compressive strength [4].

Some test results indicated that the replacement of natural sand by granite powder waste up to 15% of any formulation was favorable for the concrete making without adversely affecting the strength and durability criteria [6]. The results suggested that the marble powder is appropriate for the definition of high performance concrete (HPC) and their properties are essentially better contrasted with the reference concrete [7]. The optimized strength value of concrete was achieved for both compressive as well as split tensile strength at 9% metakaolin and 10% marble powder [8]. In their study of seven different concrete mixtures, authors investigated the partial replacement of cement and sand by waste marble powder and results found satisfactory [9].

A detailed cost analysis study was also performed to justify the use of marble powder in concrete which exhibited encouraging results in terms of strength and quality [10]. Cement was replaced with ground granulated blast furnace slag, metakaolin and silica fume. The durability studies such as resistance against sulphate attack, water absorption and sorptivity were done to evaluate the suitability of mineral admixtures. The authors concluded that self compacting concrete could be produced with supplementary cementitious materials without compromising on durability [11]. The authors suggested that the pozzolanic reaction and the development of the microstructure of the concrete through the use of waste materials are largely responsible from the advances in the durability of concrete [12]. B. P. R. V. S. Priyatham et al. showed that both cement as well as fine aggregate were replaced with marble dust and found that the compressive strength of concrete was increased by 30% replacement of sand by quarry dust with combination of 10% marble powder [13].

The study done by Ali Khodabakhshian et al. showed that the mechanical properties of concrete containing marble waste powder tend to decline for replacement ratios over 10% but satisfactory results were obtained below that level [14]. Ahmed O. Mashaly et al. have determined the physico-mechanical properties of three types of mixes including cement paste composites, mortar and concrete mixes at 7 days and 28 days and the durability performance of hardened mortar and concrete mixes at 28 days and 90 days which clearly showed that the mortar and concrete mixes modified with granite sludge upto 20% cement replacement exhibited a negligible decline in physical and mechanical properties [15]. Shashank Dixit et al. had found that concrete containing marble dust 0 to 15% showed the highest amount of compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete [16]. Adding granite dust as paste replacement could substantially improve the carbonation and water resistances, reduce the ultimate shrinkage strain and shrinkage rate, and at the same time, reduce the cement content up to 25% [17, 18

Boukhelkhal A. et al. have studied the effect of incorporating the marble powder as a supplementary cementations material on the rheological and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete. Here the authors had found that using of marble powder in self compacting concrete enhances their fresh properties and at hardened state decreases the mechanical strengths. The authors also found that the self compacting concrete containing waste marble powder subjected to magnesium sulfate attack presented a lower expansion and higher resistance to sulfate aggressions. [19-20]. Haris H. et al. have studied the strength properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength and the effect on the strength of concrete when it was subjected to sulphate attack. From their study it was found that the basalt fibre increased strength of concrete even when subjected to sulphate attack gradually as compared to conventional concrete [21].

3. Experimental Program
Ten different series of concrete cube specimens (size 150 mm), namely, CM1, CM2, CM3, CM4 & CM5 stand for 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% replacement of cement with marble dust in concrete and CM6, CM7, CM8, CM9 & CM10 stand for 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% replacement of cement with marble dust in concrete M25 & M30 were cast respectively. The experimental program of proposed work is depicted in Figure 1. Sieve analysis of coarse aggregates and fine aggregates is done in Tables 3, 4, and 5.

Experimental program

3.1 Materials and Mix Proportions
3.1.1 Marble dust: Marble dust was obtained from the marble processing industry situated at Alwar in Rajasthan, India. The chemical composition of marble dust is presented in Table 1. XRD technique is used to find the mineralogical composition of marble dust as shown in Figure 2. XRD spectrum indicates that magnesium calcium bi(carbonate) (MgCa(CO3)2) and calcium magnesium aluminum catena-alum silicate are the main crystalline minerals present in marble dust

Table 1. Chemical composition of Marble Dust

Oxides compound Percentage
CaO 42.45
Al2O3 0.520
SiO2 26.35
Fe2 O3 9.40
MgO 1.52

X-Ray-diffraction
Figure 2. X-Ray diffraction spectrum of marble dust

3.1.2 Cement: Ordinary Portland cement 43 grade conforming to IS 8112 -2013 is adopted in this work. The test conducted on cement is shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Physical testing of cement

Sr. no. Test Result IS Requirement 8112-2013
1 Fineness of cement 2.5% (Max 10%)
2 Consistency of cement 30 %  
3 Initial setting time 72 min (Min 30 mint)
4 Final setting time 195 min (Max 600 mint)
5

Compressive strength of cement at      3 days
7 days


 28 days 

27.33 N/mm2
36.25 N/mm2


47.75 N/mm2

23 N/mm2
33 N/mm2


43 N/mm2

3.1.3 Coarse aggregates
Table 3. Sieve Analysis of 20mm coarse aggregate
IS Sieve size

Weight  Retained (gm)

Cumulative weight retained(gm)

Cumulative % weight retained

Passing %
40mm 0 0 0 100
20mm 253.5 253.5 8.45 91.55
12.5mm 385.6 639.1 21.3 88.70
10mm 2085 2724.1 90.80 9.20
4.75 275.9 3000 100 0
Sum 3000.0   ∑C=220.55  

Fineness modulus of coarse aggregate 20mm = (∑C+ 500)/100 = 7.2

Table 4.  Sieve Analysis of 10mm coarse aggregate
IS Sieve size

Weight  Retained (gm)

Cumulative weight retained(gm)

Cumulative % weight retained

Passing %
20mm 0 0 0 100
16mm 25 25 0.83 99.17
12.5mm 250.6 275.6 9.18 90.82
10mm 500.4 776 25.86 74.14
4.75mm 2224 3000 100 0
Sum 3000.0   ∑C=135.87  

Fineness modulus of coarse aggregate 10mm = (∑C+ 500)/100 = 6.3

3.1.4 Fine aggregates : Coarse sand

Table 5. Sieve Analysis of coarse sand (Fine aggregate)

IS Sieve size

Weight  Retained (gm)

Cumulative weight retained(gm)

Cumulative % weight retained

Passing %
4.75mm 104 104 10.4 89.6
2.36mm 150 254 25.4 74.6
1.18mm 113 367 36.7 63.3
600 micron 136 503 50.3 49.7
300 micron 157 660 66.0 34.0
150micron 170 830 83.0 17.0
75micron 170 1000 100  
Sum 1000   ∑F=371.8  

Fineness modulus of coarse aggregate 10mm = (∑F)/100 = 3.71

Table 6. Mix Proportions for M25 & M30 grade concrete.

Mix constituents For 1  m3 of  M25 concrete (kg) 1 bag of cement (kg) for M25 For 1 m3 of M30 concrete (kg) 1 bag kg of  Cement (kg) for M30
Cement 415 50 425 50
Water 195 23.5 187 22
Sand 610 73.50 550 65
Coarse aggregates  1165(583+582) 140(70+70) 1160(580+580) 136(68+68)
Water cement ratio 0.47 0.47 0.44 0.44

Table 7. Concrete mix M25 with percentage replacement of cement

Concrete mix Cement (kg) Marble dust as replacement of cement (kg) / (%age)

Sand (kg)

Coarse Agg (kg)

Water (Litre)

CM1 12.610 0.0000/(0) 18.50 35.393 5.913
CM2 11.979 0.6304/(5) 18.50 35.393 5.913
CM3 11.3485 1.261/(10) 18.50 35.393 5.913
CM4 10.717 1.8916/(15) 18.50 35.393 5.913
CM5 10.089 2.522/(20) 18.50 35.393 5.913

Table 8. Concrete mix M30 with percentage replacement of cement

Concrete mix Cement (kg) Marble dust as replacement of cement  (kg)/(%age)

Sand (kg)

Coarse Agg (kg)

Water (Litre)

CM6 12.65968 0/(0) 16.71 35.23547 5.684211
CM7 12.02684 0.63284/(5) 16.71 35.23547 5.684211
CM8 11.39305 1.26568/(10) 16.71 35.23547 5.684211
CM9 10.76116 1.89852/(15) 16.71 35.23547 5.684211
CM10 10.12832 2.53231/(20) 16.71 35.23547 5.684211

3.2 Testing of Specimens:
3.2.1 Compressive Strength
Marble dust was mixed with cement in dry condition with the help of mixer. Control cubes of 150 mm ×150mm ×150 mm size were cast for five different percentage of marble dust for each mix of M25 and M30. The details are shown in Table 7 and Table 8. Compaction of the entire cubes was done by using table vibrator and curing was done in curing tank at a temperature of 27 ± 2 for 28 days. Compressive strength was conducted on hardened cubes after being weighed. The cubes were placed centrally over the compression testing machine which applied the load vertically at an uniform rate of 5250 N/Sec. The cubes were tested at 28+28 days, 90+28 days, 180+28 days, 365+28 days.

3.2.2 Water absorption Water absorption tests were carried out on concrete cube specimens. The results of the mixes incorporating Marble dust are given in Table 11, Table 12 and Figure 5. The concrete cube specimens were dried in an oven at 1100 C and then immersed in water and weights were checked at the age of 28 days and percentage of water absorptions was calculated. The water absorption could take place in pores which on drying are emptied and get filled when immersed.

3.2.2.1 Oven dry mass Firstly the mass of the concrete cube specimens were determined and then they were dried in an oven at a temperature of 110±5°C for not less than 24 hours. After removing the concrete cube specimens from the oven, concrete cube specimens were allowed to cool in dry air at a temperature of 27 ± 2 °C and the mass were determined. If the concrete cube specimen was comparatively dry when its mass was first determined, and the second mass closely agrees with the first, it was considered dry. If the concrete cube specimen was wet when its mass was first determined, specimen was placed in the oven for a second drying treatment of 24 hours and again the mass was determined. If the third value checks the second, the specimen was considered dry. If the difference between the values obtained from two successive values of mass exceeds 0.5% of the lesser value, return the specimen to the oven for an additional 24 hours drying period, and repeat the procedure until the difference between any two successive values is less than 0.5% of the lowest value of obtained. This last value was designated as A.

3.2.2.2 Saturated Mass after Immersion
The specimen after final drying, cooling and determination of mass, were immersed in water at approximately 27± 2 °C for not less than 2 days and until two successive values of mass of the surface dried sample at intervals of 1 day showed an increase in mass of less than 0.5% of the larger value. The specimens were surface dried by removing surface moisture with a towel and the mass was determined. The final surface dried mass after immersion was designated as B.

3.2.2.3 Calculation of water absorption
Water absorption = B-A

Water absorption %=[( B-A)/A] 100

3.2.3 Sulphate attack
Sulphate resistance of concrete cube specimens was determined in terms of strength loss when immersed in 5% Na2SO4 solution. Each litre of solution contained 50.0 g of Na2SO4 in portable water fit for drinking. The solution was mixed the day before use and was covered and stored at 27 ± 2°C. Concrete cube specimens were taken out of sulphate solution after 28+28 days, 28+90 days, 28+180 days and 28+365 days. The strength values were taken at 28+28 days, 90+28 days, 180+28 days, 365+28 days and were compared with compressive strength of standard concrete cube specimens at 56 days, 118 days, 208 days and 393 days.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Concrete structure is composed of three components, namely, hydrated cement paste with marble dust, the aggregates, and the transition zone between paste and the aggregates. The investigations were done for partial replacement of cement with marble dust by 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% for two grades of concrete M25 and M30. The study of compressive strength of concrete cube specimens (CM1- CM10) is presented below:

4.1 Compressive strength of cubes cured in fresh water : Compressive strength of concrete cube specimens with various percentage of marble dust as replacement of cement at the age of 28 days, 56 days, 118 days, 208 days and 393 days respectively are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4. From Table 9 and Table 10, it can be observed that for replacement of cement with marble dust by 5% and 10%, there are increases in the compressive strength of concrete specimens at 28 days, 56 days, 118 days, 208 days and 393 days as compared with standard concrete cube specimens. For M25 grade of concrete the increases are 11.44 % & 23.13 % at 28 days, 8.45% & 23.85 % at 56 days, 7.9 % & 24.61 % at 118 days, 4.43% & 18.09 % at 208 days and 2.2% & 15.20 % at 393 days for replacement of cement with marble dust by 5% and 10% respectively. Similarly for M30 grade of concrete the increases are 8.64 % & 22.69 % at 28 days, 6.76 % & 20.10 % at 56 days, 8.38 % & 23.27 % at 118 days, 2.58% & 15.58 % at 208 days and 1.01 % & 12.77 % at 393 days for replacement of cement with marble dust by 5% and 10% respectively. CM2 and CM3 have higher compressive strength as compared to CM1 in case of M25. Similarly CM7 and CM8 have higher compressive strength as compared to CM6 in case of M30.

It is also observed that for the replacement of cement with marble dust by 15% & 20%, there are decreases in the compressive strength at 28 days, 56 days, 118 days, 208 days and 393 days. For M25 grade of concrete the decreases are 7.04 % & 39.73 % at 28 days, 3.47% & 35.10 % at 56 days, 4.22% & 33.60 % at 118 days, 7.52 % & 30.24 % at 208 days and 10.66 % & 29.81 % at 393 days for replacement of cement with marble dust by 15% and 20% respectively. For M30 grade of concrete the decreases are 4.85 % & 31.99 % at 28 days, 4.83% & 34.33 % at 56 days, 2.30% & 28.47 % at 118 days, 9.33 % & 29.54 % at 208 days and 14.70 % & 28.93 % at 393 days for replacement of cement with marble dust by 15% and 20% respectively.CM4 and CM5 have lesser compressive strength as compared to CM1 in case of M25. Similarly CM9 and CM10 have lesser compressive strength as compared to CM6 in case of M30.

It can be concluded that the maximum value of compressive strength is obtained at 10% replacement of cement with marble dust. For replacement of cement with marble dust more than 10%, it is observed that there is no increase in the compressive strength.

strength of concrete M25
Figure 3.Compressive strength of concrete M25 (N/mm2) cured in fresh water

Table 9. Compressive strength of concrete M25 cured in fresh water
Mix Compressive strength, N/mm2 at the age of
28 Days 56 Days 118 Days 208 Days 393 Days
CM1 33.93 35.13 36.73 39.92 43.17
CM2 37.81 38.10 39.63 41.69 44.12
CM3 41.78 43.51 45.77 47.14 49.73
CM4 31.54 33.91 35.18 36.92 38.57
CM5 20.45 22.80 24.39 27.85 30.30

strength of concrete M30
Figure 4.Compressive strength of concrete M30 (N/mm2) cured in fresh water

Table 10. Compressive strength of concrete M30 cured in fresh water

Mix Compressive strength, N/mm2 at the age of
28 Days 56 Days 118 Days 208 Days 293 Days
CM6 39.14 41.40 42.11 46.21 49.40
CM7 42.52 44.20 45.64 47.40 49.90
CM8 48.02 49.72 51.91 53.41 55.71
CM9 37.24 39.40 41.14 41.90 42.14
CM10 26.62 27.20 30.12 32.56 35.11

4.2 Water absorption- Concrete is not the only material that is vulnerable to physical and chemical processes of deterioration associated with water. Therefore it is desirable to review, in general, the characteristics of water that makes it the principal agent of destruction of material. The amount of water absorbed by the concrete mixes M25 & M30 are shown in Figure 5. From Table 11 and Table 12, it can be observed that replacement of cement with marble dust by 5%, 10% and 15%, there are decreases in the percentage of water absorption of concrete cube specimens as compared with standard concrete cube specimens. For M25 grade of concrete the decreases are 7.23 %, 23.90 % and 19.08 % at 28 days. Similarly for M30 grade of concrete the decrease are 10.50 %, 36.28 % and 16.76 % at 28 days.

It is also observed that replacement of cement with marble dust by 20%, there is an increase in the percentage of water absorption of concrete cube specimens as compared with standard concrete cube specimens. For M25 grade of concrete the increase is 42.17 % at 28 days. Similarly for M30 grade of concrete the increase is 24.31% at 28 days. It is observed that concrete cube specimens made by 10% replacement of cement with marble dust in concrete gives the least percentage of water absorption as compared to standard concrete cube specimens for both the grade M25 and M30.

Percentage water absorption
Figure 5. Percentage water absorption of concrete of grade M25 and M30

Table 11. Percentage water absorption of concrete M25
Mix Marble dust % Weight of dry sample (kg) Weight of Saturated sample (kg)

% Absorption

CM1 0 8.43 8.85 4.98
CM2 5 8.44 8.83 4.62
CM3 10 8.44 8.76 3.79
CM4 15 8.42 8.76 4.03
CM5 20 8.33 8.92 7.08

Table 12. Percentage water absorption of concrete M30
Mix Marble dust % Weight of dry sample (kg) Weight of Saturated sample (kg)

% Absorption

CM6 0 8.65 9.12 5.43
CM7 5 8.64 9.06 4.86
CM8 10 8.66 8.96 3.46
CM9 15 8.40 8.78 4.52
CM10 20 8.30 8.86 6.75

4.3 Effect of Sulphate Attack Chemical reaction involves the formation of expansive product in hardened concrete that can lead to certain harmful effects. Expansion may, at first, take place without any damage to concrete, but increasing built up of internal stresses eventually manifest itself by closure of expansion joint, deformations and displacement in different part of structure, cracking, spalling and pop-outs. Degradation of concrete as a result of chemical reaction between hydrated Portland cement and sulphate ion from an outside source is known to take two forms that are distinctly different from each other. Sulphate attack can manifest in the form of expansion of concrete. When concrete cracks, its permeability increases and aggressive water penetrates more easily into the interior of concrete, thus accelerating the process of deterioration. Sulphate attack can also take the form of progressive loss of strength and loss of mass due to deterioration in the cohesiveness of cement hydration products.

4.3.1 Compressive Strength
Compressive strength of concrete cube specimens with various percentage of marble dust as replacement of cement at the age of 56 days, 118 days, 208 days and 393 days respectively are shown in Figure 6 and Figure 7. From Table 13 and Table 14, it can be observed that with replacement of cement with marble dust by 5% and 10%, there are increases in the strength of concrete cube specimens at 56 days, 118 days, 208 days and 393 days as compared with standard concrete cube specimens. For M25 grade of concrete, the increases are 7.6% & 22.25 % at 56 days, 6.2 % & 26.48 % at 118 days, 4.87% & 27.13 % at 208 days and 4.6% & 27.49 % at 393 days for replacement of cement with marble dust by 5% and 10% respectively. Similarly for M30 grade of concrete, the increases are 5.76 % & 18.9 % at 56 days, 3.75 % &17.32 % at 118 days, 3.01 % & 17.02 % at 208 days and 7.54 % & 19.90 % at 393 days for replacement of cement with marble dust by 5% and 10% respectively. CM2 and CM3 have higher compressive strength as compared to CM1 in case of M25. Similarly CM7 and CM8 have higher compressive strength as compared to CM6 in case of M30.

It is also observed that for the replacement of cement with marble dust by 15% & 20%, there are decreases in the strength at 56 days, 118 days, 208 days and 393 days. For M25 grade of concrete, the decreases are 5.44 % & 29.36 % at 56 days, 5.73 % & 27.15 % at 118 days, 5.4 % & 26.74 % at 208 days and 3.57 % & 30.30% at 393 days for replacement of cement with marble dust by 15% and 20% respectively. Similarly for M30 grade of concrete, the increases are 6.68 % & 35.58 % at 56 days, 6.49% & 36.32 % at 118 days, 3.1% & 35.88 % at 208 days and 6.18% & 34.09 % at 393 days for replacement of cement with marble dust by 15% and 20% respectively. CM4 and CM5 have lesser compressive strength as compared to CM1 in case of M25. Similarly CM9 and CM10 have lesser compressive strength as compared to CM6 in case of M30. It can be concluded that the maximum value of compressive strength is obtained at 10 % replacement of cement with marble dust.

sulphate solution M25
Figure 6. Compressive strength of concrete M25 (N/mm2) immersed in sulphate solution after 28 days of water curing.

sulphate solution M30
Figure 7. Compressive strength of concrete M30 (N/mm2) immersed in sulphate solution after 28 days of water curing.

Table 13. Compressive strength of concrete M25 immersed in sulphate solution after 28 days of water curing.
MIX Compressive strength, N/mm2 at the age of
56 Days 118 Days 208 Days 393 Days
CM1 32.9 29.83 26.1 22.41
CM2 35.4 31.68 27.37 23.44
CM3 40.22 37.73 33.18 28.57
CM4 31.11 28.12 24.69 21.61
CM5 23.24 21.73 19.12 15.62

Table 14. Compressive strength of concrete M30 immersed in sulphate solution after 28 days of water curing
MIX Compressive strength, N/mm2 at the age of
56 Days 56 Days 56 Days 56 Days
CM6 42.22 40.25 35.54 29.45
CM7 44.65 41.76 36.61 31.67
CM8 50.2 47.82 41.59 35.31
CM9 39.4 37.64 34.44 27.63
CM10 27.2 25.63 22.79 19.41

5. Conclusions
The following conclusions can be drawn from present study.
  1. Replacement of marble dust with the cement does not produce any adverse effect on the performance of concrete in terms of compressive strength, water absorption and durability.
  2. The experimental results for M25 concrete shows that 10% replacement of cement with marble dust in concrete can be used, with an increase in the compressive strength as 23.13%, 23.85%, 24.61%, 18.09% and 15.2% for 28 days, 56 days, 118 days, 208 days and 393 days respectively, whereas in presence of sulphate solution, compressive strength increases as 22.25%, 26.48%, 27.13% and 27.49% for 56 days, 118 days, 208 days and 393 days respectively in comparison to standard concrete cube specimens.
  3. The experimental results for M30 concrete shows that 10% replacement of cement with marble dust in concrete can be used, with an increase in compressive strength as 22.69 %, 20.10%, 23.27%, 15.58% and 12.77% for 28 days, 56 days, 118 days, 208 days and 393 days respectively, whereas in presence of sulphate solution, compressive strength increases as 18.19%, 17.32%, 17.02% and 19.90% for 56 days, 118 days, 208 days and 393 days respectively in comparison to standard concrete cube specimens.
  4. The test results show that the addition of marble dust as partial replacement of cement increases the durability of concrete against sulphate attack.
  5. By 10% replacement of cement with marble dust for both M25 & M30 grades produces more durable concrete when compared in terms of water absorption. Water absorption decreases by 25 % for M25 and 36% for M30 concrete.
  6. The results form a basis for strong recommendation for the use of marble dust as replacement of cement in concrete thereby saving the environment from dust pollution.
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  20. Boukhelkhal A., Azzouz L., Belaidi A.S.E. and Benabed B., Effects of marble powder as a partial replacement of cement on some engineering properties of self-compacting concrete, Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, Vol. 30, No. 22, pp. 2405–2419, 2016.
  21. IS: 10262-1982. Recommended guidelines for concrete mix Design.
  22. IS: 10262: 2009 Concrete mix proportioning-Guidelines. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  23. ASTM C642-13 Standard test method for density, absorption and voids in Hardened concrete. American society for testing materials.
  24. ASTM C l012/1012M-13 Standard Test Method for Length Change of Hydraulic- Cement Mortars Exposed to a Sulfate Solution. American society for testing materials.
  25. IS-8112:1989 (Reaffirmed 2005) Specification for 43 grade ordinary Portland cement. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  26. IS: 456-2000 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  27. IS: 383-1970 Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  28. IS: 4031 (Part 4)-1988 Determination of consistency of standard cement paste. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  29. IS: 516:1959 Method of test for strength of concrete. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  30. IS: 4031 (Part-5):1988 Methods of physical tests for hydraulic cement. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
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