Behaviour of Ternary Concrete with Flyash & GGBS

Evaluating the performance of concrete containing Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) like FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) that can be used in the production of long-lasting concrete composites.
Pradip Kumar Jha, Zonal Head (TASC), UltraTech Cement, Bhubaneswar, and Sunil Kumar Sharma, Head–Quality Control, UltraTech-RMC, Lucknow

FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)

Introduction

The Construction Industry has been facing challenges with regards to sustainability, disposal of industrial waste material, reduction in use of raw materials and energy requirement in cement manufacturing, reducing the carbon emission and rendering the environment cleaner, reduction in cement consumption in concrete, making durable concrete, thus, increasing the service life of construction etc.

Extensive research in concrete technology for finding alternative materials which can partially or fully replace Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and which can also meet the requirements of strength and durability aspects still continues.

Industrial wastes containing cementitious properties such as flyash, GGBS, silica fume, metakaolin, Rice husk rash, etc, have been tried as alternatives to partially replace cement in concrete. The performance of such cementitious materials in terms of strength, workability and durability parameters have been quite promising, and have subsequently led to the development of binary, ternary and tertiary blended concretes, depending on the number of Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) and their combinations used as partial cement replacement materials.

The SCM used in Ternary Blended Concrete, to some extent, has remained successful in meeting these objectives. Ternary concrete mixtures include three different cementitious materials. The use of appropriately proportioned ternary blends allows the effects of one SCM to compensate for the inherent shortcomings of another. Such concretes have been found to exhibit excellent fresh and mechanical properties. This evaluates the performance of concrete containing SCM like FlyAsh and GGBS with respect to fresh and hardened concrete of Ternary mixes.

This experimental investigation is aimed at evaluating the performance of concrete containing supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) like FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS). FlyAsh and GGBS are the cementitious materials that can be used in the production of long-lasting concrete composites.

Materials

  • Cement – The cement in use confirmed to OPC 53 grade of IS 269:2015
  • Flyash – The Flyash used in the study confirmed to IS 3812 (Part1):2013
  • Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag – GGBS confirmed to IS 12089:1987
  • Coarse and Fine Aggregates – The coarse aggregates and fine aggregates used in the study confirmed to IS 383:2016.

Experimentation

  • Concrete mixes of M25 grade were prepared with different combinations of OPC, Flyash, and GGBS.
  • The slump retention, final setting time, compressive strength values, and growth rate of compressive strength of these mixes were measured for 3, 7, 28, and 60 days.
  • The compressive strength of ternary blended concrete (TBC) is compared with the Portland concrete and binary concrete.
  • Aggregates (Fine, Coarse-10 mm, and Coarse-20 mm), Water, Admixture were kept almost same for all the different trial mixes.
  • Admixture dosage was 2.1% by weight of Cement and Cementitious particles.
  • The slump was maintained at 110 to 120 mm.
FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)

Results

Slump Retention

FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)

Inferences

  • The Slump retention time is the least for the Portland Cement Concrete.
  • The Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) contribute to the slump retention of ternary and binary concrete.
FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)

Final Setting Time

FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)

Inference

  • The Portland Cement Concrete has the least/fastest Final Setting Time.
  • Amongst the Ternary blended Concrete, the Final Setting Time of mix (21% FA + 29% GGBS) is the least.
FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)

Compressive Strength

FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)

Inferences

  • At 3 days, 7 days, and 28 days, the compressive strength of Portland Concrete is considerably higher than the Ternary Blended Concrete.
  • As the percentage of FlyAsh goes on decreasing, and the % of GGBS goes on increasing, the compressive strength of the Ternary Blended Concrete goes on increasing. This holds good for compressive strength of the Ternary Blended Concrete at 3 days, 7 days, and 28 days.
FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)

Rate of development of Compressive Strength

FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)

Inferences

  • The rate of development of compressive strength in the TBCs is higher compared to the Portland Cement Concrete. This holds good for all the cases viz., strength development during the period of 3 days to 7 days, 7 days to 28 days, and 3 days to 28 days.
FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)

Cost of Ternary Concrete Mix (relevant to Lucknow)

FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)

Inferences

  • As the quantity of flyash goes on increasing, the cost of concrete goes on decreasing.

  • FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)

  • The cost of concrete with OPC is considerably higher than that of cement replaced with cementitious particles.
FlyAsh and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)

Conclusion

It was observed that Ternary Blended Concrete (TBC) mixes exhibited superior qualities like slump retention, and enhanced workability, whereas their compressive strength values were found to be less than that of the conventional concrete mixes. The compressive strength of Portland Cement Concrete was higher than the TBC while tested at 3 days, 7 days, and 28 days.

It was also observed that the rate of development of compressive strength of Ternary Blended Concrete (TBC) was higher than that of Portland Cement Concrete.

The binary concrete has been in use for long. To utilise supplementary cementitious materials more effectively, and reduce their cost in the construction industry, ternary concrete is a viable alternative. With abundance of Flyash and GGBS in India, the relevance and acceptance of ternary concrete is going to be high.

Manufacture of ternary concrete will permit greater utilisation of industrial wastes and enable production of concrete with lower cement factor, leading to resource conservation, enhanced waste utilisation, and greater sustainability in concrete construction.
ICCT, January- February 2024
Nanospan's Spanocrete® Additive for Waterproofing & Leak-Free Concrete

Nanospan's Spanocrete® Additive for Waterproofing & Leak-Free Concrete

Nanospan's Spanocrete Additive for Waterproofing & Leak-Free Concrete has proven its mettle in the first massive Lift Irrigation project taken up by the Government of Telangana to irrigate one million acres in the State.

Read more ...

Accelerated Building & Bridge Construction with UHPC

Accelerated Building & Bridge Construction with UHPC

UHPC, which stands for Ultra High-Performance Concrete, is a testament to the ever-evolving panorama of construction materials, promising unparalleled strength, durability, and versatility; in fact, the word concrete itself is a misnomer

Read more ...

Innovative Approaches Driving Sustainable Concrete Solutions

Innovative Approaches Driving Sustainable Concrete Solutions

This paper explores the evolving landscape of sustainable concrete construction, focusing on emerging trends, innovative technologies, and materials poised to reshape the industry. Highlighted areas include the potential of green concrete

Read more ...

GGBS: Partial Replacement Of Cement For Developing Low Carbon Concrete

GGBS: Partial Replacement Of Cement For Developing Low Carbon Concrete

Dr. L R Manjunatha, Vice President, and Ajay Mandhaniya, Concrete Technologist, JSW Cement Limited, present a Case Study on using GGBS as partial replacements of cement for developing Low Carbon Concretes (LCC) for a new Education University

Read more ...

Nanospan’s Spanocrete®: nano-admixture for concrete

Nanospan’s Spanocrete®: nano-admixture for concrete

Nanospan’s Spanocrete, a Greenpro-certified, award- winning, groundbreaking nano-admixture for concrete, actualizes the concept of “durability meets sustainability”. This product simplifies the production of durable concrete, making it cost-effective

Read more ...

The Underwater Concrete Market in India

The Underwater Concrete Market in India

India, with its vast coastline and ambitious infrastructural projects, has emerged as a hotspot for the underwater concrete market. This specialized sector plays a crucial role in the construction of marine structures like bridges, ports

Read more ...

The Path to Enhanced Durability & Resilience of Concrete Structures

The Path to Enhanced Durability & Resilience of Concrete Structures

This article highlights a comprehensive exploration of the strategies, innovations, and practices for achieving concrete structures that not only withstand the test of time but also thrive in the face of adversity.

Read more ...

Self-Curing Concrete for the Indian Construction Industry

Self-Curing Concrete for the Indian Construction Industry

The desired performance of concrete in the long run depends on the extent and effectiveness of curing [1 & 2]. In the Indian construction sector, curing concrete at an early age is a problematic issue because of lack of awareness or other

Read more ...

BigBloc Construction an emerging leader in AAC Block

BigBloc Construction an emerging leader in AAC Block

Incorporated in 2015, BigBloc Construction Ltd is one of the largest and only listed company in the AAC Block space with an installed capacity of 8.25 lakh cbm per annum. The company’s manufacturing plants are located in Umargaon

Read more ...

Decarbonizing Cement Industry: Sustainable & Energy-Efficient Measures

Decarbonizing Cement Industry: Sustainable & Energy-Efficient Measures

Dr. L R Manjunatha (VP), Manoj Rustagi (Chief Sustainability & Innovation Officer), Gayatri Joshi (ASM), and Monika Shrivastava (Head of Sustainability) at JSW Cement Limited, discuss new approaches for Decarbonizing the Cement

Read more ...

Concrete Rheology: Technology to Describe Flow Properties of Concrete

Concrete Rheology: Technology to Describe Flow Properties of Concrete

Concrete is a heterogeneous composite complex material, and its hardened property is influenced by its fresh property. Concrete today has transformed into an advanced type with new and innovative ingredients added - either singly or in

Read more ...

Amazecrete ICRETE: Making Concrete Economical & Durable

Amazecrete ICRETE: Making Concrete Economical & Durable

ICRETE offers many benefits apart from reducing cement content and giving high grades saving to ready-mix concrete companies; it helps reduce shrinkage and permeability in concrete slabs, increases the durability of concrete, and also works

Read more ...

UltraTech Cement & Coolbrook’s RotoDynamic HeaterTM Technology

UltraTech Cement & Coolbrook’s RotoDynamic HeaterTM Technology

UltraTech Cement Limited, India’s largest cement and ready-mix concrete (RMC) company, and Coolbrook, a transformational technology and engineering company, will jointly develop a project to implement Coolbrook’s RotoDynamic HeaterTM (RDH)

Read more ...

Plastic Shrinkage and Cracks in Concrete

Plastic Shrinkage and Cracks in Concrete

Plastic shrinkage cracking occurs when fresh concrete is subjected to a very rapid loss of moisture. It is caused by a combination of factors such as air and concrete temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity at the surface of concrete. These can cause

Read more ...

Dam Rehabilitation With Cutoff Wall for Seepage Control

Dam Rehabilitation With Cutoff Wall for Seepage Control

This paper covers the research work carried out on cement plastering process for internal and external building wall by using spray plastering machine. Objective of study is to experiment and compare the plastering activity by conventional way and

Read more ...

Construction Defects Investigation & Remedies

Construction Defects Investigation & Remedies

In recent years, the speed of construction has increased very fast; buildings which used to take 3-5 years are now getting completed in 1-2 years. There is a race to complete projects faster, but due to this speedy construction, the quality of construction is often

Read more ...

Challenges in usage of Hydrogen in Cement Industry

Challenges in usage of Hydrogen in Cement Industry

With its zero-emission characteristics, hydrogen has become a promising decarbonization path for the cement industry. While there are several issues that need to be resolved in the use of hydrogen, there are also many advantages, so much so that the growth

Read more ...

Enhancing Corrosion Resistance of Steel Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures

Enhancing Corrosion Resistance of Steel Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures

Reinforced concrete is a composite material which is made using concrete and steel bars. Concrete takes the compressive forces and steel bar takes tensile forces. Concrete around the steel bar protects it from corrosion by providing an alkaline environment

Read more ...

Moving toward workability retention to rheology retention with low viscosity concrete technology

Moving toward workability retention to rheology retention with low viscosity concrete technology

Amol Patil, Sr. Specialist - General Manager (Admixture and Specialty Products), Master Builders Solutions (India), and Nilotpol KAR, Managing Director, Master Builders Solutions (South Asia), present a paper on the concept of low viscosity concrete in

Read more ...

To get latest updates on whatsapp, Save +91 93545 87773 and send us a 'Saved' message
Click Here to Subscribe to Our eNewsletter.