Formwork Systems
The formwork systems are among the key factors that decide the success of a construction project in terms of speed, quality, cost, and safety of workers.

Nowadays, a client wants the projects to be completed in the shortest time possible to minimise the cost. For highrise buildings, the most effective way to expedite works is to achieve a very short floor cycle — to have the structure of a typical floor completed in the shortest time, the use of a system of efficient and appropriately designed formwork. Modern buildings can be very complex, either in terms of scale, architectural or structural design, sophisticated building services or other facilities requirements. The design and use of the right formwork system, as well as stipulation of an effective resource planning strategy to control and maximise the use of the formwork, are crucial to the overall success of a project.

Depending completely on speed often contradicts the achievement of other quality targets. Problems such as misalignment, misplacement, deflective concrete or holding up other works result serious interruption.

Modular Panel System
Modular Panel system e-deck System
The formwork can be classified according to a variety of categories, relating to the differences in sizes, the location of use, construction materials, nature of operation, or simply by the brand name of the products.

PASCHAL was founded in 1964 in Steinach in the Black forest of West Germany, whose inhabitants are known for innovations, accuracy and sense of quality. PASCHAL, an ISO 9001:2000 company currently serves several satisfied construction companies in almost 60 countries. The company successfully launched its first product Modular Panel in India in April 2010 and gained very quick response from the market due to its user friendliness. Overwhelming request from its prospective customers persuaded it to start its operations in India. The company's sales & technical support is located at Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad and manufacturing unit at Visakhapatnam.

Products Portfolio

PASCHAL system has a range of unique products for both Vertical and Horizontal structures that include: Modular formwork for vertical structures and e-deck system for horizontal slabs.

Track Hopper Furnace Wall Columns
Track-Hopper Furnace wall Columns

Modular formwork systems are available in various panel sizes. The panels are strong and durable, being manufactured of 6 mm-thick high quality sturdy steel which do not corrode. The surfaces of these panels are covered by high quality Finnish birch plywood with a phenolic resin coating. The edges of the plywood are protected by steel frame and the gap between frame and surface is filled with a special joint filling agent. Hence, the panel's plywood can be re-used roughly 250 times and the steel frame will remain strong for long.

The efficient use of Paschal Modular formwork can expedite the superstructure work thrice compared to the traditional formwork system.

e-deck is a special system which has been designed considering the Indian work conditions. Paschal's decking system has various Panel Dimensions. The panel frame consists of profiled steel with a height of only 7.5cm, and the facing consists of 9 layer, 12mm thick birch plywood. These panels are light in weight, not more than 20kg, hence leading to better workmanship and high productivity. The system doesn't require a crane facility and can be handed manually. The panel's plywood can be re-used roughly 200 times and the steel frame still remains strong for long.

Application Areas

Different elements in the structure of building have different design and performance requirements in the use of formwork. A number of formwork systems are particularly designed for constructing internal or external walls, vertical shafts, columns, beams, and floor slabs. The complicated three-dimensional nature of an element involving suspended panels and riser boards, as well as the need to cope with very different spatial and dimensional variances as required by individual design situations, cannot be achieved by a universally adaptable formwork system.

PASCHAL's Modular system is multipurpose which can be used in reality as well as infrastructure sector. The system is used when the concrete pouring is done. Most importantly only one system is used in overall project. It is compatible with the traditional system wherever required so, the typical Indian style of “This as well as That" also works with the system.

Horizontal Fininshed Surface Surface Finish Vertical Finished Surface
Horizontal Finished Surface Vertical Finished Surfaces

It can also be used in many infrastructure projects like Power for Track Hoppers, RCC walls, irrigation Projects for canal Drains, Box Culverts, Water Treatment Plants, and Reservoirs etc.

Paschal offers a very wide range of services including design support or tender estimating advice. As the use of innovative building methods gains more attention from various sectors in the Industry, advanced formwork systems will certainly become more widely adopted. The input through research and development by the well-established formwork manufacturers has no doubt been a contributing factor.

Sizes

Few buildings may have very simple layouts with few in-situ walls and floor plates framed with regularly spaced columns, as seen in many commercial and office buildings. Paschal System has the different sizes of the Modular panels and e-deck panels which can be fitted to any structure. Some buildings may have non-standardised dimensions due to the architectural design and layout or to fulfill other structural requirements. These include the regular reduction of sizes for beams, columns and walls in highrise buildings as the structure ascends.
  • Modular system: Height wise: (75 /125 /150)cm Width wise: (100/75/60/50/45/40/35/30/25/23/20/15/10/5).

  • e-deck system: Each panel has the dimensions (60x125,45x125, 30x125, 60x120, 45x 120,30x120, 60x90, 60x85, 60x60 and 30x60) etc. making the system adapted to every 5cm for any kind of room architecture.

Repetitive Nature

Highrise block-shaped structures usually require highly repetitive cycles and this is favourable to the use of formwork. However, the degree of repetition in building with very large construction area like a podium or underground structures such as basements is limited and the use of formwork, as an expensive resource.

As with Paschal, Modular system is a unique product where it can be used for any concrete structure. According to its dimensions, panels are being erected, so repetitive wise. As said ‘One System for all unique structures.'

Surfaces finishes Fair-faced concrete demands very high quality formwork in terms of surface treatment of the panels, tightness of the formwork joints and in dimensional accuracy.

Construction-related Factors

Speed of work (Vertically and Horizontally)

Beams Support of Panels with Props/shoring system Panels on Beams Panels on Beams drop head system
Beams with Modular is Possible within. Support of panels with Props/shoring system. Panels placed on Beams Panels placed on Beams drop head system

While working on large construction areas and horizontal spread, projects can be expedited by the introduction of additional sets of formwork to create more independent work fronts which of course, increase the capital investment.‘e-deck is a user-friendly system that for slab. It is an easy erection and dismantling system which helps in handling our slab requirements. As said ‘e-deck' system is used for the slabs, which is the main structural (horizontal) component of the building (slab thickness up to 30 cm). It can be widely used in building sector. For highrise buildings, increasing the number of formworks cannot always solve the question of speed, the critical path still depends on the floor cycle. However, a properly selected, designed and arranged formwork system will definitely increase work efficiency for each typical cycle. In some cases, adding half or a full set of formwork, especially for the floor forms, may help to expedite the cycle as the additional set can provide more flexibility when the form is struck at an earlier time. In this system, a special feature has been incorporated for the fast slab cycle. The Drop and Prop head system helps in easy movement of the slab cycle of 3 days that facilitates the work to be alternatively shifted from one floor to another in less time.

Reusability

The re-use of formwork is a major factor in cost comparison for the total project. Modular panel can be re-used 250 times subjected to the proper handling whereas the e-deck system can be re-used 200 times according to its durability and handling.

Thus, it is still economical to use formwork for highrise buildings at heights in accordance with the multiple of the usual re-used times. Although the Steel frames remain strong for 20 years, thus only the plywood can be refurbished once the maximum repetition is achieved.

Easy Erection & Faster Construction

Paschal modular and slab system are very easy to operate and no skilled worker is required in erection and de-shuttering process. These days getting skilled labours, and carpenters is very difficult. The Modular panels can be lifted with or without crane due to their hight weight of 40kg sqmtr and the e-deck of 20 kg, where the conne- ction technique is only Key bolt.

e-decksystem Modular System Slab System
Handling and erecting of Modular and e-deck system with one connection technic

The important factors must be considered before implementing a construction plan apart from the right selection of formwork system, requirement of lifting appliances provided for the erection of formwork. Whether these appliances will be able to access the work spot to assist in the operation as the structural works proceed; whether any special equipment will be required for striking the forms; and how the removed formwork panels can be transported to other site to continue work.

Limited accessories and multi- usefulness of the system, allow the quick work and fasten the cycle of the casting. During the course of construction, accessibility problems may occur through segregation, temporary discontinuation, or blocking of the layout by the partially completed building. Or, in cases where constructing a shaft-type core wall is constructed in an advanced phase, the shaft may stand independently for a long period of time before it is connected to the horizontal elements. Arrangements for access to work places should be properly arranged when carrying out construction planning. As by this system, there is a limited scope of safety hazards (Major Accidents on sites can be avoided.)

Feasibility of Introducing Alternative Designs

Residential Towers
Mostly architects often design such a building which is not suitable for use of more advanced and efficient formwork systems. It is quite common for builders to submit alternative design proposals to clients for consideration with minor structural or architectural amendments so that more effective formwork methods can be applied. Very often, the cost benefit derived is shared between the builder and the client in order to achieve a win-win situation.

Case Study

The development is located in Hyderabad (AP) with 12,500 sqm site. A 21 level storey housing with car parking, and recreational facilities, the project was completed in order to provide a terrace to seat the residential towers. The upper and lower level towers have a difference of about 65 m. The twenty-one storey residential towers are built on top of the podium, providing about 5 residential units each of about 2500 Sqm in size. Creating many elevated work positions that significantly retarded the progress of work. Shear walls and columns with lift shafts are operated simultaneously so that with the limited materials, the job can be completed without any delay. As most structural forms for highrise residential buildings are similar, the project is well located in the region where all the facilities are nearby including the transport facility. The expected finishing of the project is by 2014. By using paschal system, the developer has achieved the completion period of the formwork as expected with better usage of the system benefits.

Challenges

  • Inadequate R&D in construction industry. In this system, there is less usage of accessories and the connection technic is the only key bolt which restricts the misplacement of loose accessories. As this system is well designed considering all flaws of working habits at construction site.

  • Less working space at construction sites: This is a major concern in construction industry but this system requires very less space to store materials wherein placing is very easy as it's designed vertically and can be placed horizontally one above the other.

    Paschal System is well designed and can be used at site without any preparation which saves time and less labour involvement. Training opportunity (including on-the-job training) is still limited for both the professionals and other workers.

  • Extensive use of different dimensional structure: The residential buildings and small-scaled projects enhance the use of innovative formwork system. That's why we have made a typical structure in a simple way where the window cut outs box, door openings will be the major concern in the building sector and our system makes all the possibilities with a simple onsite solution.

  • In this system, there is very less usage of skilled labour, better time cycle for floor to floor casting, and better surface finish, less supporting, where you can save the cost effectively. The exceptionally large scale and complex nature of projects in terms of the site condition as well as structural and building design confine, the application of more advanced and sophisticated formwork system.
Without a guarantee of a consistent market environment in the development and continual application of innovative technology, learned skill and experience cannot be easily accumulated. This can, to a certain extent, also explain why the use of structural steel in construction as a more innovative method of construction has not been adapted by any local practitioners.

Paschal Formwork Benefits and Features:
Innovative Formwork System
  • The product is well designed for load bearing capacity, as minimum supporting is required according to the structure. Wailers and other major supporting elements system are not required and used.

  • No usage of skilled workers at site as all the provisions have been included within the system, like tie rod provision and the key bolt holes provision for appropriate panel sizes.

  • Latest innovation within the system as RFID technology has been incorporated for easy tracking of the material (on site and off site for Logistics) which helps the workers a lot.

  • The major concern in slab is the work cycle but in this system, we have a Drop and Prop head where it takes 3 days for slab cycle. Normally, it takes 6 to 7 days of slab cycle for the next pore. The project work has been in continuous process making the work cycle in a Quick shuttering and de-shuttering of panels.

  • Modular system has a repetitive cycle where one system can be used for all the structures which voraciousness in all the dimensional panel sizes. Similarly, the shear wall in this project is changing floor by floor so this panel has been adjusted according to the sizes of the typical structure as well as Columns, beams, and the Lift core wall. This way, we can reduce the cost effectively and increase the work efficiency. This calculation has been the major concern in speedy work and multi- use of the product.

  • Here the surface finish will be smooth as we can avoid plastering and can directly go for falcework, as a result, it saves the time and excess labour.

  • It's a universal product, not customised (as any concrete structure can be formed which varies in sizes) only one system at building site. Suitable for small surfaces, and can also be extended to become a large-size formwork.

  • Dimensional Accuracy will be perfect.
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