Brijesh Ashokbhai Wala, Engineer, National Highways and Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited (NHIDCL), presents the vagaries and challenges in underground construction, with case studies of projects constructed or planned in the complex geological terrains of the Himalayas, along with some mitigation measures and precautions to prevent accidents.
Mountain belts which are created by continent-continent collision represent the most dominant and unique geologic features on the surface of the Earth. Some of the best examples of such continent-continent collision which lead to orogenesis are the Rockies and the Appalachian belt in North America, the Andes in the South America, the Ural Mountains in Central Eurasia, the Alps of Europe, and the Himalayas in Asia. The youngest and the most impressing of all such collisional belts is the Himalayan orogeny. The Himalayan mountain ranges are the product of collision between the India and Eurasian plate and a live example of collision mountain belt as the process of mountain building is still active, forming the highest range and plateau in the world.