Aspects of Structural and Civil Engineering in "Deep Shaft Mine" Construction

Y.R. Rao, General Manager (Retd.) Mine shaft design and construction planning division CMPDIL HQ, Coal India Limited.
The "DEEP SHAFT COAL MINE" consists of essentially two vertical shafts, one to hoist men and materials, and the other for winding coal from deeper seems."MINE SHAFT" surface structures comprises(viz) shaft collar cum head frame foundation, shaft winding plant structures, and mine ventilation structures. The design and construction of these unique structures require specialized knowledge and advances in the state of art and expertise gained through experience.

This paper presents the structural and civil engineering aspects relating to typical design, constructional and operational features of Mine Shafts.

The aspects of mine shaft concrete lining, furnishing out-fittings in structural steel provided in the mine shaft structure underground are discussed and explained.

Introduction

With exhaustion of minerals at shallow depths the need arises for exploitation of deeper seems from surface. The "DEEP SHAFT COAL MINE" system comprises in general a twin shaft system with shafts situated at 80m-100m distance. The mine shafts currently developed are constructed as circular, concrete lined vertical openings with finished diameter up to 8.0m. to serve the functional requirements. In this system one shaft is equipped with skips for mineral hoisting and the other shaft equipped with "CAGES" serves the function of transport of materials, men and services like power, dewatering etc. The conveyances are hoisted by an ground mounted winding engine by means of ropes passing over pulleys (sheeves) installed over the steel head frame. The ventilation scheme involves providing exhaust ventilation for the mine with fresh air entering the downcast shaft is exhausted through up cast shaft by means of "MINE FAN" installation.

The mine shaft structure elements underground consists of shaft concrete lining, insets, sump and skip loading pocket. The mine shaft is furnished with out-fittings of "STRUCTURAL STEEL GUIDES" and equipments.

The "MINE SHAFT SINKING" (mining operation) is done with a temporary steel head frame for hoisting the buckets (kebble) and steel scaffold (sinking stage).

In this paper, the structural and civil engineering aspects in the construction and commission of typical "DEEP COAL MINE SHAFTS" are presented.

The typical mine shaft structure with permanent winding system is shown in Fig-1. The general system for mine shaft sinking with a temporary steel head frame is shown in Fig-2.

This section of the article is only available for our subscribers. Please click here to subscribe to a subscription plan to view this part of the article.

Dr. Lakshmana Rao Mantri, Assistant General Manager (Designs), and Satya Narayan Kunwar, Project Manager, AFCONS Infrastructure Ltd. , discuss the design and construction challenges of constructing India’s deepest underground metro ventilation

Read more ...

Despite a daunting timeline set by the Paris Accord, zero-carbon tunnels are within reach, provided the right solutions are implemented. Er. Vasileios (Bill) Paoulos, CMT, CMRL, L&T Construction Heavy Civil Infrastructure

Read more ...

Mike A. Sposetti, Global Technical Manager TBM, Underground Construction, Master Builders Solution, Malta, and Manish Gautam, Product Segment Manager - UGC TBM Tunneling Projects, Master Builders Solution, Mumbai, discuss how readily biodegradable

Read more ...

G.B.Nagendra. General Manager - Projects, Konkan Railway Corporation, gives a first-hand experience of the adverse geological conditions encountered during construction of Tunnel T5 of the Katra-Dharam Section of the USBRL Project and the solutions

Read more ...

Vinay Gupta, Director & CEO, Tandon Consultants, discusses the intricacies and issues in the construction of underground metro stations including strata survey during structural design, selection of methods and techniques of construction, traffic management

Read more ...

Pre-injections or injections ahead of the excavation face in underground construction can, in many situations, offer significant advantages. This is particularly the case in difficult ground conditions like severe water ingress or mechanically

Read more ...

Sandvik's fully automatic, DT 922i and semi-automatic, DT 821C jumbo drills are enabling Max Infra to attain lower drilling costs per meter, with higher machine availability during the ongoing construction of the access tunnel

Read more ...

Rakesh Kumar Khali, Project Director-Hydro, Hindustan Construction Company Limited, Mumbai, describes the type of risks involved in underground construction projects, gives important guidelines to the tendering authorities and contractors

Read more ...

Rock excavated in an average tunneling project is often considered waste and mostly finds its way to a landfill. Depending on the geology and excavation method used, the extracted material can have significant quality deviations

Read more ...

Safety in infrastructure sector means preventing accidents, loss and damage to human life and equipment. Being adequately trained and aware of the equipment in use is imperative, especially in the case of heavy equipment

Read more ...

Authors C.P Singh, S.K Ganji, and Madhur Goel elucidate the issues and precautions taken during full face mining, using a TBM for the construction of JPW to Krishna Park Downline Tunnel of Package DC-06. This 5.8 m internal diameter

Read more ...

Uttar Pradesh Metro Rail Corporation Limited Underground Construction On 25 November 2013, LMRCL (now UPMRCL) was incorporated as a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) under the Companies Act, 1956. The construction of phase I A of Lucknow Metro (Transport Nagar to Charbagh) started on 27 September 2014

Read more ...

India’s economic growth is closely associated to its energy demand; in fact, India is the 3rd largest energy consumer in the world. A robust growth is expected in the country’s oil and gas sector, which will make the sector

Read more ...

Brijesh Ashokbhai Wala, Engineer, National Highways and Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited (NHIDCL), presents the vagaries and challenges in underground construction, with case studies of projects constructed or planned

Read more ...

Anirban Sen, Business Line Manager – Underground Division, Epiroc Mining (India), explores the technologies, methods and benefits of modern intelligent face drilling equipment, the reasoning behind selection of ‘smarter’ face drills

Read more ...

This case study of the Sewa H.E. Project (120MW) in the Kathua district of Jammu and Kashmir, covers the planning process and various construction features of a 10.02km long, 3.3m diameter horseshoe shaped concrete lined tunnel

Read more ...

Strabag AG implements complex construction projects, particularly in tunneling and infrastructure development, and is represented in around 30 countries worldwide. It has been active in the fields of building construction, civil

Read more ...

Construction is underway on a tunnel as part of a bypass to relieve traffic for communities in Toggenburg, Switzerland. For Doka’s formwork experts, keeping in view the conditions of this project, their new, rentable tunnel system

Read more ...

On 22nd September 2021, hard rock/slurry TBM Urja (DZ670) manufactured by China Railway Construction Heavy Industry Cooperation Limited (CRCHI) achieved a breakthrough from the Cantonment Station to the Shivaj Nagar Station

Read more ...

Hard Rock Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) is the first choice for the construction of hard rock tunnels because it is a fast, safe, and environmental-friendly construction method. As overburden increases, the ground stress of

Read more ...

×
Sign-up for Free Subscription
'India Construction Week'
Weekly e-Newsletter on Construction Industry
Get the latest news, product launches, projects announced / awarded, government policies, investments, and expert views.