Research Survey on Field Data Based Mathematical Simulation of Complex Construction Activity

This article represents the detailed review of the research papers published in the area of mathematical simulation of construction process by various researchers by adopting different approaches. They include all modern aspects in construction but in respect to Indian scenario where majority of total construction works are still executed manually which consumes a lot of human energy which needs to be focused and develop a mathematical relation which simulate the real input and out put data directly from the construction field where the work is actually being executed. The advantages and limitations of the applied mathematical models are identified and the models are classified in terms of application range and goals. The findings indicate that the topic understudy is of great importance as no such approach of field data based mathematical simulation is adopted where human energy is related to productivity of construction process.

S.P.Mishra, PHD Scholar & Associate Professor,Civil Engineering Deptartment., Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg, Dr. Dkparbat, Sr Faculty In Department of Civil Engineering,Govt Polytechnic Nagpur, Dr.J.P.Modak, Dean R&D and Professor Emiratious, Priyadarshni College of Engineering

Introduction

Modeling is the process of producing a model; a model is a representation of the construction and working of some system of interest. A model is similar to but simpler than the system it represents. One purpose of a model is to enable the analyst to predict the effect of changes to the system. On the one hand, a model should be a close approximation to the real system and incorporate most of its salient features. On the other hand, it should not be so complex that it is impossible to understand and experiment with it. Mathematical simulation of construction activity is developed to overcome the deficiencies in current methods, for process improvement, process management and to reduce fatigue in the workers and musculoskeletal injuries. Since it has been seen that oftenly equipments have been designed as the task is independent of human characteristics. Ergonomic considerations help in raising productivity, method improvement, improving work station and its layout. The process of developing mathematical simulation of a complex construction process is to develop a relation between different variables which influences the productivity, quality of construction process and then resources.

Literature Review: The review is grouped into sub-sections under which they are being required to study such as methods of investigating work, methods of simulation, simulation in construction process.

Methods of Investigating Construction Process

Suhad M. Abd et al. [1] highlighted the topics of productivity monitoring and measurement in constructing sector. Concreting process is taken as case study. A comparative model has been developed to determine the best method of construction, its cost and duration. This study focuses the basic concepts of construction productivity and its characteristics through work study, then summarize how and where it can be improved through construction management concepts especially performance measurements and benchmarking. John Smallwood. [2] consolidates published findings emanating from a range of descriptive surveys conducted among management and workers over a period of six years in the South African construction industry. Excavating, formwork, concreting, and roofing predominate among trades and activities in terms of impact on construction ergonomics, followed by steel erecting, screeding, brick laying, and ceiling erecting. The author concluded that improvement in construction ergonomics is important as it implies that the respective built environment disciplines need to be aware of the need before the initiation of other interventions which can contribute to such improvement. Kwangseog Ahn et al.[3], describes the potential ergonomic hazard to which construction workers are exposed during the concrete pouring operation in the construction of concrete structures and identify potential interventions to reduce the hazards associated with the operation's tasks. The laborers' work was divided into 5 job tasks: preparation work, pouring concrete, spreading concrete, smoothing concrete, and clean up etc. Recommended the use of a power screed rather than a manual screed and re-design of the long trowel for concrete smoothing, and the use of handles or belts on the concrete hose to reduce awkward trunk postures during concrete pouring. John Rasmussen et al. [4], describes how computer modeling of the musculoskeletal system can be used for ergonomic design of products and workplaces. It is concluded that musculoskeletal modeling has the potential to revolutionize the field of ergonomic design. Rwamamara et al.[5], they advocate conceptual model for a participatory design , shows the vital importance of partnerships between various stakeholders at the project preparation stage. The result of such partnerships is of course the intelligent design itself and its benefits namely health and safety for construction workers and end-users, and enhanced productivity and quality which will benefit many stakeholders especially the client in terms of reduced financial loss. Karl H.E. Kroemer, et al.[6] emphasizes that the efficient and safe operation of civilian and military systems requires that tasks, equipment, and the work environment be compatible with the users' capabilities. Too often equipment is designed as if it stood alone, and the task is conceived as if it were independent of human characteristics. Since the interaction among the person, the equipment, the task, and the environment are complex. The paper determined that an integrated ergonomic model is needed, feasible, and useful. Cheng-Jian Lin et al. [7] Suggested a neural fuzzy network based on improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm to use human body posture classification. Four main human body postures are used for posture classification, including standing, bending, sitting and lying. A new posture classification method is proposed in this paper. K h f marrel[8] in his book the man and his environment ,has explained the effect of environment and productivity of a manufacturing system ,before devising any new method or change in equipment of doing a work it is necessary to discover where change is needed. He suggested many methods for measurement of work and activity he suggested many methods of measuring energy expenditure which was discovered by researchers in this field ,such as the amount of human energy expended in doing physical work is closely related to the amount of oxygen consumed, so that the methods of measurement attempt to assess their amount directly or indirectly. Methods of direct measurement involve estimating the volume and composition of expired air while indirect methods are based upon variations in the heart rate. Douglas Bag, gas meters and in the simplest form the method of pulse count in which no apparatus requires described, the wrist being palpated for approximately 15 seconds, photo electric pulse counter which continuous reading of pulse rate. Heart rate can be related to oxygen consumption or energy expenditure and relationship between pulse rate and oxygen consumption has been confirmed. S M Sane et al. [9] in this work they used principles of ergonomics in designing work stations. They observed that operator need to adopt an awkward static posture for a long time or need to do lot of stretching and bending; hence to reduce the strain on workers back an ergonomic work station has been suggested. S. Dalelae [10] in his text book of work study and Ergonomics described a complete set of techniques through which the work can be simplified, standardized and measured; which leads to raising productivity, method improvement, improving work station and its layout, work sampling and production studies. He referred I.L.O. productivity mission to India which states that working plays a very important role in productivity improvement and avoid loss of many hours. Ergonomics covers the work environment and human factors the application of this approach in designing the work by considering the worker as an integral component of a complex production system in order to reduce the human error. The role of classical ergonomics is to fit the task to the man by adapting the equipment the operator had to use to task account of his capabilities and limitations. This approach focuses on anthropometric data to determine the optimal layout of work areas, spacing of controls, design of seat. The fundamental input to any manufacturing system are an interrelated mix of men, machine, materials and method.

Methods of Simulation

Anu Maria.[11] gives an overview of simulation modeling and analysis. He explains simulation modeling, types of problem suitable for simulation, selection of simulation software and the benefit and pitfall in modeling simulation. Gunnar Lucko et al. [12], suggests a knowledge based approach to increase the use of simulation in the construction industry without its users having to become or hire experts in simulation techniques. It concluded with a case study of a real project to illustrate its application and potential benefits. J. Mason et al. [13], they concluded that optimization-via -simulation consists in applying iteratively two detached models until an optimality condition is reached: a simulation model for predicting the system performance, and a model for generating potential optimal solutions. This paper proposes explicit mathematical programming representations for jointly simulating and optimizing discrete event systems. The main advantage of such models is the rapidity of searching for the optimal solution, given to the explicit knowledge of objective function and constraints. Three types of formulations are proposed for solving the buffer allocation problem in flow lines with finite buffer capacities: an exact mixed integer linear model, an approximate LP model and a stochastic programming model. Numerical analysis shows that the computational time required to solve resource allocation problems can be significantly reduced by using the proposed formulations. Yannxin Zhang B.S. [14] investigated in his study to simulate and investigate the manual material handling (MMH) activities. In this approach, the human body was viewed as a two-link rigid body (upper body and lower body) control system, which can control the muscles to generate different joint torques (ankle torque and hip torque) to compensate the external load moment which was be considered as a perturbation at different phase and posture during lifting. The body postural responses to a wide range of perturbations were simulated. F. Hosseinpour et al. [15] in this paper after comprehensive literature review he admits that simulation is a very helpful and valuable work tool in manufacturing. It can be used in industrial field allowing the system's behavior to be learnt and tested. Simulation provides a low cost, secure and fast analysis tool. It also provides benefits, which can be reached with many different system configurations. Topics to be discussed include: Applications, Modeling, Validating, Software and benefits of simulation. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review on research efforts in simulation.

Optimization Using Artificial Neural Network

J.P. MODAK [16] has suggested an AI technique (Artificial Intelligence) techniques for improvement of quality of performance of a man machine system. In spite of considerable mechanization introduced in any industry for enhancing production quality, a totally man less factory is rarely to be seen. Still, one has to depend on a Man Machine system. It is intuitively felt that using appropriately available cotemporary analytical tools, it should be possible to improve the performance of any man-machine system / production process. Use of AI techniques is proposed to most effectively realize this goal. Flood I. et al. [17] evaluated a neural network approach to modeling the dynamics of construction processes that exhibit both discrete and stochastic behavior, providing an alternative to the more conventional method of discrete-event simulation. These involve the application of the technique to two classes of earthmoving system, the first comprising a push-dozer and a fleet of scrapers, and the second a loader and fleet of haul trucks. J.P.MODAK [18] formulated an experimental data based ANN model for a Human Powered Fodder Chopper. Mathematical models have been developed, validated and optimized as per the suggested procedure. In this paper the ANN model is formulated to generate the correct values of the output parameters corresponding to the various values of the input parameters. M.C.Nataraja, et al. [19] has developed a novel technique for approximate proportioning of standard concrete mixes. The results in terms of quantities of cement, fine aggregate, course aggregate and water obtained through the present method for various grades of standard concrete mixes are in good agreement with those obtained by the prevalent conventional method. J.M. Yatim et al. [20], this paper describes the global issue of sustainability, data collection and potential applications of an analysis using artificial neural network in predicting service life for an ongoing research on affordable quality housing at University Teknologi Malaysia. M. Jamil et al. [39] their study is aimed at demonstrating the possibilities of adapting ANN in the development of simulator and intelligent system and to predict and testing the network will start immediately he compressive strength and workability of High performance concrete. The developed neural network simulator model by using the back propagation architecture has demonstrated its ability in training the given input/output patterns. The application of artificial intelligence in the field of HPC mix design is very appropriate in order to preserve and disseminate valuable experience and innovation efficiently at reasonable cost. Vahid. K. Alilou [21] he explains, implementation of an artificial neural network developed for prediction of compressive strength of concrete. A MISO (Multi Input Single Output) adaptive system has been introduced which can model the proposed phenomenon. The data has been collected by experimenting on concrete samples and then the neural network has been trained using these data. The 3-day strength parameter of concrete in the introduced structure also has been used as an important index for predicting the 28-day strength of the concrete. The simulations in this paper are based on real data obtained from concrete samples which indicate the validity of the proposed tool. In this paper, a practical approach has been presented for prediction of 28-day compressive strength of concrete.

Simulation in Construction Process

Mohamed F. Hamoda [22] measured the noise levels generated at different construction sites in reference to the stage of construction and the equipment used, and examined the methods to predict such noise in order to assess the environmental impact of noise. Fangyi Zhou Simaan M. et al. [23] presents the design and development of a template for analyzing shaft construction projects The developed system be a powerful tool for decision-making and evaluating the feasibility of tunnel construction methods, in identifying and allocating site spaces, and in the visualization of tunneling construction sites as a mean of describing the site layout to other involved parties. This paper establishes the functionality and usability of a proposed Shaft construction template. Vesa karhu [24] in variety of modeling methods has been used to model construction processes and projects, either during normal project planning or for process re-engineering efforts or research. One common method, which is widely used by construction industry practitioners, is scheduling. A new generic construction process modeling method, GEPM, was developed to overcome the deficiencies of the current methods. GEPM can be used for process improvement, process management, and for enhancing communication in a construction process. A new generic construction process modeling method has been developed. The new method overcomes the deficiencies of the earlier methods and thus provides a solid foundation for further research and development projects. E. Sarah Slaughter et al. [25] This paper presents a new application of process simulation to construction activities to assess the operational and economic impacts of technological innovations. The first construction model developed is structural steel erection, and this model is used to identify the potential benefits and costs of eight specific erection innovations, and any changes that may be required in material, equipment, or process to use them. The model includes the process flow diagram of detailed tasks which is matched to specific design elements, production rates, operating conditions, and resources to calculate activity durations, taking into account the capacity of the resources, worker safety, structural stability, and other constraints. The dynamic process simulation models applied to construction activities offer the opportunity to link the development of an innovation in the early stages to its use, and to ease its transition and improve its actual field performance.

Peter Simonsson [26] The project has so far comprised different forms of full scale studies, laboratory studies and theoretical work. In the beginning of the project, interviews were carried out with management of construction sites to lay a foundation for the time and cost apportionment of typical bridges, also to examine which common bottlenecks present in production and to examine how large part of the cast in place concrete the self compacting concrete (SCC) constitutes. The project aimed at examining if it was technically feasible to use rebar carpets and if there were any economical benefits in using it. An additional objective was to examine the effect on the working environment imposed by the change in working methods. The other full scale project was concentrated on the use of SCC, but also the rebar carpets were examined to some extent. It can be concluded that, applying Lean Construction principles is possible on bridge construction with ready mixed concrete. In fact, Lean Construction is an important prerequisite and tool for the development of an more industrial process. Katsuya Kanaoka [27] They have proposed the concept of Man-Machine Synergy Effectors. These are high-performance tools by introducing robot technology. It becomes possible to perform conventionally impossible tasks by human alone or robot alone, because the system synergizes better assets of both parties. In this paper, the concept of Man-Machine Synergy Effector is described. Eddy M. Rojas et al. [28] introduces a conceptual framework for the construction management practice that serves as the foundation for the development of situational simulations. Situational simulations are temporarily dynamic clinical exercises with the objective of exposing participants to rapidly unfolding events and the pressure of decision making. The analysis of a basic mathematical represen- tation of the process model is the focus of this paper. The development of situational simulations of construction engineering and management issues in virtual environments has the potential of transforming the current educational paradigm of both current and future construction professionals. The aim of this research is to create a learning environment for construction managers and provide them with situational simulations which they can use to construct concepts that are relevant to the environment of the construction process. Graveling RA.Rong et al, [29] This study takes advantage of recent developments in object-oriented design to formulate a new simulation system, COMSim (Construction Object-Modeling Simulation), to enhance simulation capability.The design framework for the COMSim system is established and explained in this paper modules, such as for sensitivity analysis and report printing, can be added to further enhance the capability of the COMSim system for the planning and analysis of construction operations. Naso et al. [30] The coordination of just-in-time production and transportation in a network of partially independent facilities to guarantee timely delivery to distributed customers is one of the most challenging aspect of supply chain management. This paper focuses on the ready-made concrete delivery: in addition to the mentioned complexity, strict time-constraints forbid both earliness and lateness of the supply. In this work, we considered the problem of finding an optimized schedule for the just-in-time production and delivery of ready-made concrete. Ragýp Akbaþ [31] describe a new approach for modeling and simulation of construction processes based on geometric models and techniques. This process modeling and simulation approach, called GPM, models the conversions in construction processes as sequences of crews acting on geometric work locations. With the GPM approach, construction planners can be more proactive in addressing construction challenges on a particular project and can respond more quickly and accurately to changes in the project design or crew availability or capacity. Sami K. Al-Masalha, [32]A new taxonomy and its use for modeling construction operations are developed here. This taxonomy identifies a hierarchical representation of construction projects based on operational considerations. The hierarchy consists of seven levels: product, assemblies and subassemblies, components, operations, processes, physics, and control. An overview of the current state of modeling and simulation techniques that are used to develop and evaluate construction operations is presented. The advantages and limitations of physical-based modeling, 4D-CAD, and virtual modeling techniques as an integral part of the developed taxonomy are identified. The potential uses of robotics and automation opportunities in construction are described. Also, distribution of work between humans and tools and equipment based on their physical and information contributions are reviewed and analyzed. Classifications of construction work at different levels of detail are described to identify which operations can be usefully modeled and the appropriate level of the model., this research introduces a new common taxonomy for modeling construction operations. K. M. NASSAR et al. [33], In early ages 'Designing' of a building could not be differentiated from 'building' it, since the Master Builder was also the designer. With the increased complexity of design, this arrangement changed. This paper describes a new approach to store design description of assembly details as intelligent objects. A prototype system EASYBUILD is introduced. In this paper a new approach for integrating construction and geometric modeling processes of buildings was described. This approach allows the designer to generically describe how certain assemblies using a simulation network structure. Zubair Ahmed Memon, [34] presents a prototype expert system, namely Automated Construction Project Progress Monitoring (ACPROM) system, developed for integrating construction drawings, digital images of construction site progress and construction schedule. Using emerging technologies and information systems ACPROM model suggests new process or reengineer the traditional AEC field inspection process. This system can automatically interpret the CAD drawing of a building and extract data of its structural components and develop the data base and simultaneously extract the information from digital images and by simulating these two databases the percentage of progress will be calculated and actual physical progress bar chart will be developed automatically. This paper described a computer model for automatic generation of as-built project schedule. The model utilizes the photogrammetry techniques and Computer aided design (CAD) capabilities for field data acquisition and is integrated within a knowledge-based expert system environment. The main focus of this study is to design a methodology for monitoring and evaluating the construction project and developing a systematic model considering Malaysian construction industry's view point. The objective of this research is to demonstrate that 3D CAD could be integrated with computer vision to produce as built schedule. The development of ACPROM demonstrate the possibility of combining the pictures and CAD drawings, allowing the superintendents to systematize the monitoring and evaluation of site condition/progress more precisely. ACPROM demonstrates the benefits and potentials of applying knowledge base system to construction project control and documentation. The application of ACPROM model in daily monitoring the progress enables project management teams to better track and control the quality of construction projects. Ming Lu et al. [35] introduces an enhanced version of the Simplified Discrete Event Simulation Approach (SDESA) by incorporating a concurrent interruptions mode original SDESA. Particular emphasis is placed on how to model the effects of operational interruptions upon the system performance by applying SDESA. The well-established CYCLONE method acts as a cross-validation tool to check the results given by SDESA. And the validity and simplicity of SDESA modeling are illustrated with a simple earthmoving operation simulation and a real hoist and barrow concreting operation simulation. This paper has focused on how to model the resource breakdowns and regular interruptions in construction operations simulation, and introduced the newly developed enhanced version of the Simplified Discrete Event Simulation Approach (SDESA) that makes construction simulations more realistic and, at the same time, retains the simplicity of modeling. Volker SCHWIEGER et al[36], in this article an approach was made to define a new quality model for the construction of residential houses. The advantage is its consistency through out the whole process and the consideration of process and product quality. Additionally it is not restricted to accuracy, but deals with additional parameters as availability, correctness, timeliness, synchronization, completeness, expenses and resources. Ms. Jane J. L. HAO et al [37], focuses on overview of the current construction and demolition waste management in Hong Kong. The intention is that such an integrated simulation model will have the potential to assist decision makers and practitioners to better understand the complexity of information and processes involved in managing construction and demolition waste through a project's life cycle. Nashwan Dawood et al.[38], The aim of this ongoing research is to improve the performance of the precast concrete products manufacturing system through developing and testing an intelligent manufacturing management system. The objective is to develop and test an advanced evolutionary meta-heuristic approach embedded in simulation models applied in the precast concrete products manufacturing system. The purpose of the study was to develop a simulation model for a manhole production system. The production system was modeled using ARENA to identify bottlenecks and evaluate curing area performance.

Analysis & summury -Extensive Literature Survey is made and correlated with the present work which justifies the research direction and methodology. After the review of research papers on the theme following conclusions are made:
  1. Observational analysis for posture, activity, tools handling concluded the potential of ergonomic hazards in construction especially concreting activity. A model of concreting process for productivity monitoring and measurement through work study is suggested.
  2. Musculoskeletal modeling has the potential to revolutionize the field of ergonomic design by eliminating construction work injuries, productivity & quality may be improved and financial losses can be reduced. In construction following activities are highly ergonomic thrust area Excavations, formwork, concreting and roofing.
  3. Interaction between the human, the tools and the task and environment are complex, so an integrated ergonomic model is needed.
  4. Simulation of various aspects at different stages of construction and equipment used, project planning, process reengineering, process improvement, process management, simulation of construction process can assess the operational and economic impacts of technological innovations and improve its actual field performance object oriented simulation, situational simulation for modeling pressures of decision making, optimization of a schedule for Just-in–time production and delivering of readymade concrete simulation technique.
  5. Some researcher have introduced a common method for modeling a hierarchical representation of construction project based on operational considerations and it is not limited to simulation techniques, construction means and methods virtual reality modeling, construction automation and robotics in improving construction. Some new approach for integrating construction and its design details using a software EASYBUILD is suggested for modeling and construction simulation known as parametric geometric modeling and construction simulation.
  6. Another modern prototype expert system ACPROM is suggested for integrating construction drawings, digital images of construction site progress and construction schedule. This system directly interprets the CAD drawings and extract all required structural details, information of digital images, percentage of actual physical progress bar chart can be developed automatically. The model utilizes photogrammetric techniques and CAD capabilities for field data acquisition which can have a track on quality construction simulation of resources breakdowns and regular interpretations in construction known as simplified Discrete Event Simulation Approach.
Results and conclusion- The selected work is mainly for manual work in labor intensive construction practices but the process of simulation is equally useful for mechanized & automated construction process using artificial Neural Network approach to modeling the dynamics of construction process exhibits both discrete and stochastic behavior. ANN model can be used to generate correct values of output parameters corresponding to the various values of the various values of the input parameters. ANN finds its best uses for modeling input and its output behaviors in civil engineering problem in the field of mix design, management of equipment & its cost effective utilization. Sensitivity and reliability of mathematical models using direct method to calculate the rate of change in the model output with respect to a given input parameters. The work done so far concludes that the direction and methodology selected are justified as mathematical simulation of construction process is a required field of research and many work for different aspect has been done but as our country engages intensive labor force in construction and manual work which involves human energy input, anthropometric data of construction workers, dimensions of tools used by them which effects productivity, quality, cost and such research work to develop mathematical simulation of field data collected actually from on going construction sites will definitely contribute a new dimension in the simulation of most important activity of concreting work by giving separate and combinations of its different sub activity like bar cutting, formwork preparation, placing of rebars, concrete making, placing and finishing.

Though various approaches are developed for construction process modeling the topic under consideration has its own area of work and importance. The various authors selected modeling & optimization they confirm the usefulness of the work in improving productivity, quality & reduction in losses. In indian scenario even after enough improvement still major proportion of total construction work is done manually. The anthropometric data of workers, the tools used, method of doing work influences the human energy required to accomplish the work and productivity and quality of work can be correlated with some mathematical simulation.

References:

  • Suhad M. Abd, Abbas M. Abd, Muhammad Fauzi Hj. Mohd Zain and Amiruddin Ismail , 2008 Development of Productivity Assessment Methodology for Concreting Process, Asian Research Publishing Network.
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The growth of the tunnel construction in the country has been driven by a robust pipeline of projects and investments in setting up hydropower projects, developing urban mass rapid transit systems, improving road

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Stoked by their debut success with the timely completion of Kajang Line’s underground section, Gamuda Engineering found themselves pitted once more against the unique challenges of tunnelling in Kuala Lumpur

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A tunnelling project is a race against time and costs. Getting it right from the very beginning requires knowledge, skill and experience, as well as a proper range of equipment that fulfils the customer’s tunnelling

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The Mumbai-Nagpur Expressway is delayed until 2022. In the meantime, a machine ‘GHH IS26’ with remarkable reliability has been specially flown in from the supplier and is in operation to help complete the project

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The project, located at the riverside of the Moscow River, passes under heavy traffic and crowded buildings. It includes two sections of a total length of 2947m. One is from Maple Avenue Station to No.2 Working Shaft

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Pull Force is the force that a truck or prime mover can exert onto a transporter or any type of trailer. It has been a subject of much controversy and misunderstandings as truck manufacturers and end-users often do not talk

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The first Sandvik DT922i, a computer controlled fully automatic tunneling jumbo, has been introduced by Sandvik Mining and Rock Technology in India with a vision to achieve high levels of safety, productivity and

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Horizontal Directional Drilling is a technology in pipe and utility installation that allows greater accuracy and flexibility in placement and ends the need for costly digging, large crews, road closures and other

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Special knowledge is required for building tunnels and wind energy plants in order to implement demanding projects. The facilities and manufacturing processes required for such projects can be adjusted well in advance for

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The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is the biggest particle accelerator in the world – and growing. To equip the LHC for new, more ambitious experiments in the next decade, the accelerator is currently

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The river has its source at over 3000 meters high in the snow-covered Andes. It reaches the Pacific Ocean after 250 km. On its way, it overcomes a considerable gradient and is, therefore, ideally suited to generate electricity

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Tan Shunhui, Chairman, CREG, discusses the competitive advantages of the company’s tunneling equipment and solutions, emerging opportunities in developing countries, factors driving its growth and success across

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15-meter mega Slurry TBM rolled off the assembly line at CRCHI. The excavation diameter of the equipment is 15.01 m, its total length is about 130 m, total weight is about 4300 t, installed power is about 9755 kW, rated

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Being the longest water delivery line in the history of Jilin province, transferring water from Songhua River into Central Jilin Province will transfer the largest capacity of water and cover the largest areas. The water diversion

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Amit Kaul, BASF India Limited (Construction Chemicals Division), India, tells about the innovative tunnel lining system and related design aspects, and also describes the main advantages of this lining system in comparison

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Underground infrastructures are an integral part of modern cities as they serve to counter problems of surface congestion and environmental degradation. The problems of ground vibrations, vibration induced noise and ground

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