Characterisation of Foundry Sand Waste Material for Road Construction

Different types of waste materials viz. copper slag, zinc slag, steel slag, manganese slag, phosphogypsum slag, cinder, red mud, kimberlite, lime sludge, foundry sand, coal ash, jarofix, jarosite, manganese slag, marble dust etc. are being generated in huge quantity as a bye product from the different industries. Presently, utilization of these waste materials is much more crucial and concern in India due to large amount of production and having very limited application. Foundry sand is one of such waste material produced from foundry industries spreded all over the country. The annual production is about 3 million tons from different foundry industries in India. The unutilized accumulated material is about 25 million tons. The material was collected from foundry industry, Ahmadabad (Gujarat) and characterization was carried out to study its application in the construction of embankment, subgrade and shoulder layers of road. Physical, chemical and geotechnical characterization were carried out considering the application in road construction. The paper discusses about the laboratory test results and development of design specification of its suitability in the road construction. It is observed that foundry sand is a coarse grained material having sand size particles. It can be used in the construction of embankment/subgrade and shoulder layers after modification of geotechnical properties.
A K Sinha, M Vinoth, S R Shankar, V G Havanagi, Scientists, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi, India

Introduction
Foundry sand is an industrial waste material generated from the foundry industries spreded all over the country. It is a natural sand which is used as a molding material in the ferrous and nonferrous metal casting industries. This sand is typically recycled and reused through many production cycles. After several cycles, it becomes unsuitable for the industry and pile up as a waste material, called foundry sand. The total production of this waste sand is about 3 million tons annually.

Fox and Mast (1998) revealed that foundry sand may be used as an embankment construction and its performance is comparable to conventional soil. Kleven et al., (2000) observed that foundry sand can be used in the construction of pavement sub base layer (Kirk, 1998; Goodhue et al., 2001). Yucel and Ahmet (2005) advocated that soil-foundry sand mixtures blended with cement/lime can be used in the construction of highway sub base layer and as a fill material (Gedik et al., 2008). Luis et al. (2015) used the foundry sand blended with clayey soil for application in base and subbase layers construction and observed that foundry sand - soil mixtures have mechanical properties similar to the conventional material. Foundry sand improved the mechanical properties of clayey soil after blending which may be used in the construction of sub grade (Kumar et al. 2014). Even though, the percentage utilisation of foundry sand is very less in India. Laboratory investigation was carried out to assess the suitability in road construction viz. physical, chemical and geotechnical characteristics. Different geotechnical characteristics that were studied included; grain size analysis, Atterberg limit test, free swelling index test, specific gravity test, Proctor compaction test, CBR test, unconfined compressive strength test, consolidation test, permeability test and direct shear test. The paper discusses the results of laboratory studies and different technical specifications for its use in embankment, sub grade, shoulder and GSB layers of road. Design and stability analysis of foundry sand embankment was also presented under different water saturation condition with seismic factor.

This section of the article is only available for our subscribers. Please click here to subscribe to a subscription plan to view this part of the article.

Subgrade makes the formation level of the road crust. The material specifications of subgrade material are therefore more demanding than the soil used in general fill or embankment. In some construction projects, it becomes difficult to get the required subgrade

Read more ...

Atasi Das, Assistant Vice President, G R Infraprojects, explains the concept of the Perpetual Pavement in India’s expressway constructions and its practical implementation with due consideration of layers, materials, and thicknesses

Read more ...

Dr. Rakesh Kumar, Senior Principal Scientist & Pankaj Goel, Senior Technical Officer, Rigid Pavements Division,CSIR-Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), New Delhi, give information on the Performance of Curing Compounds in Strengthening

Read more ...

The construction and maintenance of roads with flexible pavements in very cold regions where annual temperatures range between +30oC to -35oC has got its own challenges. The bitumen in the asphalt layer becomes hard at such low temperatures

Read more ...

The Bundelkhand site team achieved yet another feat on 15 Jan 2022 by completing 13 deck slabs of varying types in just 46 days. Therefore, it is a demonstration of exemplary display of overall project executing capabilities

Read more ...

Er. Devjyoti Paul, Project Manager & Er. Harpreet Singh, Chief Project Manager, B&SEC, share the technical and construction features of three bowstring girder ROBs, recently constructed under Package I & III of Purvanchal Expressway in the state of Uttar Pradesh

Read more ...

Use of Extruded Polystyrene Sheets (XPS) in the construction of the Zojila Approach Road has been especially effective as XPS is the most suitable, convenient, and cheaper solution for mitigating frost action on pavements, increasing the life of pavements

Read more ...

The Indian road network is the second largest globally, with a length of around 63.86 lakh km. The outbreak of the virus towards end-FY20 had created panic globally, leading to the temporary suspension of economic activity

Read more ...

Roads and Railways boost awards; tenders up marginally Overall tendering grew 5% YoY during H1FY22 Awarding activity grew at a 2-year CAGR of 22% in H1FY22 Infrastructure credit near all-time highs

Read more ...

There are many challenges being faced by the highway sector such as ensuring availability of construction materials and machinery, timely completion of projects, availability of trained human resources

Read more ...

Practical Recommendations for Construction of Longitudinal Joints in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Pavements Rajib B. Mallick, Ralph White Family Distinguished Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), Massachusetts, USA, and Veeraragavan

Read more ...

Plant and Equipment Determine Quality of Road Construction Road Infrastructure projects are time constrained; early completion of project entitles rewards while delays attract penalties. The plants and equipment being used determines the quality of the road

Read more ...

Designing roads and highways efficiently with the right materials will help achieve optimum construction cost, lower maintenance, and reduce life cycle costs. Ash from coal-fired thermal power

Read more ...

Rodic Consultants has emerged as a leader in the infrastructure consulting space with state-of-the-art engineering solutions, and a proven track record of timely completion of projects across sectors

Read more ...

Readymade Kandhal Pothole Patching Mix was adopted as Indian Roads Congress (IRC) Standard Specification IRC: 116-2014 for Readymade Bituminous Pothole Patching Mix Using Cut-Back Bitumen. All concerned

Read more ...

The Bundelkhand Expressway is a 296-km long, 4-lane wide (expandable to 6 lanes) access-controlled expressway in the state of Uttar Pradesh. It will connect Gonda village in Chitrakoot district with Agra–Lucknow

Read more ...

This case study briefly discusses the planning, design and construction of Package 3 of the Purvanchal Expressway. Package-3 of the Purvanchal Expressway is a 41.7km long section of the 340.82km long

Read more ...

Since the 1980’s billions of dollars have been invested in developing methods to make pavement design and construction more sustainable through the re-use of existing resources. This includes insitu recycling and

Read more ...

India has the second largest road network in the world, spanning a total of 5.89 million km, transporting 64.5% of all goods in the country. Nearly 90% of India's total passenger traffic uses the road network to commute

Read more ...

India generates nearly 26,000 tonnes of plastic waste every day, making it the 15th biggest plastic polluter globally. Discarded plastic waste litter the country’s roads, rivers and also form huge mounds in garbage

Read more ...

×
Sign-up for Free Subscription
'India Construction Week'
Weekly e-Newsletter on Construction Industry
Get the latest news, product launches, projects announced / awarded, government policies, investments, and expert views.