Transportation Infrastructure Needs and Developments

Dr. N. Subramanian, Consulting Engineer, Gaithersburg, MD, USA

Introduction

Mobility is fundamental to economic and social activities of any country. Mobility is provided by the transportation infrastructure and this has a huge impact on the development and welfare of the population. In several countries, lack of transportation infrastructure and regulatory controls are jointly impacting economic development. Moreover, transport systems are among the various factors affecting the quality of life and safety in a city. Though there are several modes of transport, like road, rail, air, and water, in many countries road networks cater to the majority of transportation needs. For example, in India, as per the National Highways Authority of India, about 65% of freight and 80% passenger traffic is carried by the roads. The National Highways carry about 40% of total road traffic, though only about 2% of the road network is covered by these roads. Rural areas have poor access 33% of villages in India still do not have all-weather road and remains cut-off during monsoon. Average growth of the number of vehicles has been around 10.16% per annum over recent years. (The Automobile industry in India is rapidly growing with an annual production of over 2.6 million vehicles.) Hence only roads and bridges are considered in this article.

Demand for freight and passenger transport, particularly by road, has typically grown 1.5 to 2 times faster than GDP in most developing and transition countries. Public investment in transport typically accounts for 2.0 to 2.5 percent of GDP and may rise as high as 4 percent or more in countries modernizing or building new transport infrastructure. GOI has raised the investment in infrastructure development from 4.7% to 8% of GDP in 11th five year plan. According to recent estimates by Goldman Sachs, India will need to spend $1.7 trillion on infrastructure projects over the next decade to boost economic growth, of which $500 billion is budgeted to be spent during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan [It may be of interest to compare it with the situation in USA: Complex calculations done by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), revealed that decaying roads, bridges, railroads, and transit systems are costing the United States $129 billion a year. ASCE's 2009 Report Card for America's Infrastructure graded the America's infrastructure a "D" based on 15 categories, and estimated that USA needs to invest approximately $2.2 trillion from 2009 – 2014 to maintain infrastructure in a state of good repair. The 2009 Report Card, gave grade "D-" for roads, and grade "C" for bridges (www.infrastructurereportcard.org). It noted that nearly one-third of roads in USA are in poor or mediocre condition, 25% of bridges either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete!]. With the need for such a large scale development of infrastructure in India, the way forward is to move to fast track construction mode, to upgrade quickly the design standards and specification to international standards, to modernize the construction techniques, to use new construction materials, and to use some innovative techniques..

The urban transport situation in large cities of India is deteriorating, leading to high transportation cost to road user. The deterioration is more prevalent in metropolitan cities where there is an excessive concentration of vehicles. Commuters in these cities are faced with acute road congestion, rising air pollution, and a high level of accident risk higher transport costs, but also delays rendering supply chain management unreliable. Many new technologies have been developed to tackle the deterioration of concrete due to corrosion.

This section of the article is only available for our subscribers. Please click here to subscribe to a subscription plan to view this part of the article.

Er. Vivek Abhyankar describes the steps and aspects of load testing of various types of superstructures, along with some cautionary measures and points to ponder upon by the designers, site engineers, and testing agencies. The information provided will be

Read more ...

Girders with corrugated steel webs represent a new innovative system which has emerged in the past decade. These girders have thinner webs, higher fatigue resistance, and are more economical, easier to fabricate, more aesthetic, and provide faster construction

Read more ...

The iconic National Namaste Signature Bridge in Delhi over the river Yamuna appears languid in perpetual motion in the tradition of the Calatrava’s Bridges in motion, symbolizing nationalism in its visual form. V N Heggade, FNAE, Structural Consultant, Mumbai

Read more ...

The former Prime Minister of India Shri H D Devagowda laid the foundation stone of the Bogibeel Bridge on January 22, 1997 at Kulajan (Assam). After 5 years of laying of the foundation, on April 22, 2002 the Prime Minister of India Shri Atal Behari Vajpayee

Read more ...

As part of Northeast Policy, the Ministry of Railways took up the project of providing rail connectivity to Imphal in Manipur state. As per the detailed survey, the rail alignment takes off from existing Jiribam

Read more ...

Brahmaputra is one of the longest river in Asia with a total length of 2880 km & out of which 920km (approx.) lie in India. The New Brahmaputra Bridge @ Tezpur is one of the most challenging one, in the attempt to bridge

Read more ...

The road and railway crossing across the Brahmaputra on National Highway-52B is located at Bogibeel, about 17km downstream of Dibrugarh in Assam. The location is an area of high intensity rainfall (the annual rainfall ranges

Read more ...

The world has progressed beyond imaginations. Similar to the field of IT, Civil Engineering has also taken several steps forward to bring out innovative technologies to meet challenges of this world’s aspirations. Going forward from

Read more ...

The bridge lies in the state of Assam, but this location is usually referred to as upper Assam as it is far away from Guwahati and bordering China. The nearest airport is Dibrugarh. Then there is a drive of 65km into the

Read more ...

The Infrastructure Industry is continuously evolving; new roads, elevated corridors, expressways, railways, dedicated corridors, metros, mono-rails are being constructed all the time. They also require constant

Read more ...

The 6.5 feet wide walkway in the Hongyagu Scenic Area in Hebei province hangs 755 feet above the ground, and is the world's longest bridge, which opened in 2017-end. Designed by Tel Aviv architect Haim Dotan

Read more ...

Prestressed Concrete (PSC) structures especially bridges are being largely used all over the world due to their multifarious advantages in terms of structural behaviour, economy as well as aesthetical

Read more ...

Four Span Pipe Bridge
Distressed structures require necessary remedial measures in order to restore their original structural properties like strength and stiffness. Validating the effectiveness of the proposed qualitative remedial

Read more ...

Foot Bridges
Footbridges have a longer history than road or railway bridges. Ancient footbridges comprised of natural materials such as roots of trees, ropes, stones, masonry, and wood. Modern footbridges are built

Read more ...

Thane Creek Bridge
Load testing is done to determine the safe load carrying capacity of structures, determining if specific legal or overweight vehicles can safely cross the structure or needs to be restricted and the level of post

Read more ...

Bridge in Central Kerala
Cement concrete is a versatile building material and is the second most consumed material in the world, after water. It is made using porland cement, coarse, and fine aggregates, water and one or more

Read more ...

Concrete Road Bridges
Planning, design and construction of bridges and flyovers is very challenging at places with space constraints. There has been rapid development with the availability of high strength steel and concrete

Read more ...

Integral Abutment Bridges
The conventional bridges use expansion joints and bearings to accommodate the thermal movements of the bridge. However, they don't completely eliminate the distress caused because

Read more ...

Bridge Restoration
The use and advantages of Post Tensioning are very well known in the Civil Engg Industry as it has been in use for the last 40 to 50 years. Post tensioning is one of the best methods to induce stresses in the concrete

Read more ...

Signature Bridge
Wazirabad Bridge or Signature Bridge Project is an initiative of Delhi Government, planned during the Commonwealth Games. It was conceptualized to be a landmark tourist icon that would also speed

Read more ...

×
Sign-up for Free Subscription
'India Construction Week'
Weekly e-Newsletter on Construction Industry
Get the latest news, product launches, projects announced / awarded, government policies, investments, and expert views.
Click here to subscribe.