Management RequirementWith large amount of infrastructure development activities around us, specially for four laning and other highway work, sizable funds are dedicated for construction for road project, it would be prudent to have these projects completed well in time rather than having delayed completion. Accordingly project preparation and process of giving the work to the suitable contractor is judiciously decided.
The necessity of efficient management is actually felt due to:
- Works are to be completed in time as per schedule of work as funds are fully dedicated.
- Requirement of quality and advanced techniques of design to give slender structural members and impart optimization.
- Increase in size of projects involving large quantities of construction materials to be handled and innovative designs for bridges are being finalized viz cable stayed bridges or other long span bridges.
- Increase in complexity of project involving high grade materials.
- Shortage of skilled manpower specially in case bridge projects are located in remote area.
Bridge Construction OverviewPlanning and monitoring is basically what is to be done in due course of time, and how it is to be executed in the planned/allotted period for the particular bridge. All the pros and cons of the likely problems in the anticipated period need to be examined. Also the records of important points are made available at site with executives as follows:
- Why the particular site was selected for the bridge.
- Why particular type of bridge is proposed. (structural arrangement)
- Site data
- Proposal for preparation drawing.
- Soil strata in the form of bore log.
- Model study detail if already done for scour assessment.
- Salient features of the bridge and quantities of each items involved.
- Upto date approved structural drawings.
- Details of all meetings and up to date decision if at all taken.
- Decision making mechanism in case of any dispute i.e. Dispute Review Borad (DRB) be already finalized.
Bridge Foundation and Substructure
Management of Construction Activities
Plant ManagementRequirement of equipment/plant be assessed systematically and accordingly action may be taken to arrange this for a particular job.
- Quantum of work covering all the items with specifications
- Time available for work excution
- Details of equipment and also minimum requirement as per job position.
- Rated capacity of equipment/ plant
- Assessed capacity
- Schedule of maintenance
- Inventory of spare parts required
- Repair cover to equipment/plant
After staff has reported at site necessary action should be taken to utilise all the equipment. The required facilities for servicing and repair must be established to meet requirements.
Material ManagementMaterial management is a parallel activity along with start of the Project. This cover procurement of camp material, office equipment, major purchased items, such as aggregates, sand, cement, steel, structural steel, shuttering consumables, electrical fittings. Forecasting of quantities and cost of various items on monthly basis must be done at least three to six months in advance which should be regularly reviewed.
Finance ManagementNo project or project management can be meaningful without this. In case of Government work the manager should get his budget fixed on monthly basis, on the basis of work done or minimum to be fed at site, on the decision of higher authorities. Key to measure financial planning lies in taking all above action and taking suitable measures at appropriate times to ensure that individual inputs are achieved to the maximum and capital investment kept at the lowest level.
Quality ManagementQuality of work at site is most important activity and manager should always grapple to improve the same. Training to staff should be provided to update the quality control measure and it should become part of the work culture. At site laboratory be established to check the quality of concrete.
Tests be analysed at site based on the size of job. Mix design should be prepared based on the latest code and to produce the concrete of desirable strength. Compaction of concrete be given more attention before final setting. Latest guidelines issued by IRC and MORT&H be followed for systematic quality assurance. Quality assurance on ground improve the aesthetic of structures.
Safety ManagementSafety of employees at site should be observed very seriously. All the workers be given briefing about the safety requirements based on the site hazards. Specially when the simply supported structure is attempted on deep gorge, suitable arrangement should be made to avoid any accident at site during insitu casting of superstructure. Also in case of foundation if the deep excavation is involved, the quality of surrounded soil be kept in view. There are incidents where few workers got buried in deep excavation due to sudden slide, this should be taken care. In case the well foundation is being attempted using double drum winch care need to be taken during grabbing process. During the diving process the proper coordination needs to be made between the diver and attendant to intimate about the problems if any, for which local signaling arrangements used, this can be finalised at site based on convenience. In case the pneumatic sinking is being used for well foundation, following safety measures, may be observed:
- Accelerate circulation of air
- Slow decompression
- Duplicate and spare equipment
- Illumination inside working chamber
- Signaling arrangement
- Caution about incidental loading
- Proposal and Bid Estimates – These documents describe how the contractor envisioned the construction of the project and his plan to accomplish the work. It includes information about costs and schedule as well as construction methods.
- Project Schedule - This is one of the most overlooked project records and it can provide the best documentation in a claim situation. The original baseline schedule sets the mark for monitoring the effects of any delays or unforeseen project disruptions.
- Project Change orders – Any variances from the original contractual requirements must be documented and separated from the original scope of work requirements. Daily reports, time sheets, letters of correspondence and meeting minutes or any other documentation discussing agreements made between parties should be readily available.
Decision making circulated, critical activities be cleared by manager after proper deliberations. Also care must be taken to select a new entrant suiting to the job for requirement.
ConclusionWith the changing scenario—there is urgent need to manage the bridge project effectively. Construction management basically is a tool to complete the project effectively within fixed amount but in less time. Manager should have knowledge sequence of all the activities. Decision making for both sides the contractor and the client needs to be fast and time bound otherwise the project will get delayed which will have cost over run. Control in form of reviewing monitoring has a catalyst effect to boost the progress.
- Dhiman RK - “Caisson Launching A- Case Study” Civil Engineering And Construction Review (CE&CR) - 1996.
- Dhiman RK - “Foundation Level for Bridges – A Programmatic Approach” 1996 New Building Material And Construction World (NBM & CW)
- Dhiman RK - Essence of Silt Factor for Scour Around Bridge Pier” – International Conference on Scour of foundation (ICSFI) held at Texas USA (17-20 Nov 2002)
- Dhiman RK - “Construction Problem of Bridges in Hilly Region – A Review”-1997 International Association of Bridges and Structural Engineers (IABSE)
- Dhiman RK –”Dimwe Bridge Foundation –A Case Study” 4th International Seminar on Bridge and Aqueduct – 1998
- Dhiman RK - “Well Foundation Construction in Bouldery Bed - A Case Study” International Association of Bridges and Structural Engineers (IABSE) Colloquium Feb 1999.
- Dhiman RK – “Affects of Flash Flood- A Case Study” – Disaster Management NERIST, Itanagar – 1999
- Dhiman RK - “Caisson Sickness During Pneumatic Sinking” International Symposium at University of Dundee Scotland (UK) - Sep 2003
- Dhiman RK – “Bridge Construction Problems and Solutions – A Review” 17th National Convention of Civil Engineering at Bhubneshwar – 2001
- Dhiman RK – “Extension of Span Ranga II Bridge – A Case Study” - ‘17th National Convention of Civil Engineering & Seminar on Modern Trend in Construction and Maintenance of Roads, Flyover and Bridges – Bhubaneshwar – Nov 2001’
- Dhiman RK - “Tilt Rectification of Well Foundation – A Case Study” - Indian Road Congress (IRC) Indian Highways May 2002.
- Dhiman R.K. – “Essence of Training of Manpower for Concrete Technology”, Sixth International Conference on Concrete Technology (6ICCT) at Aman (JORDAN) Oct 2003.
- Dhiman R.K. – “Construction Challenges for Bridges in Hilly Area – An Over View” - Indian Road Congress (IRC) Indian Highways Jan 2004.
- Dhiman R.K. – “Damages to Bridges due to Flash Flood – A Case Study” - Indian Road Congress (IRC) Indian Highways Oct 2004
- Dhiman R.K.- “Bouldery Bed Scour – Proposed Formula” Indian Road Congress (IRC) Journal 65 Vol-3 Paper No. 508. Nov 2004